Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2019/2020
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Territoriale
Docente Biagi Ludovico Giorgio Aldo
Cfu 10.00 Tipo insegnamento Monodisciplinare
Didattica innovativa L'insegnamento prevede  3.0  CFU erogati con Didattica Innovativa come segue:
  • Blended Learning & Flipped Classroom

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

The course objectives are firstly to explain the general positioning problem and the specific methods applied in different scenarios by different techniques: outdoor and indoor positioning problems are addressed and their methodological and technical solutions are explained. Then, Location based Services are defined, their main issues are discussed and the present solutions are explained. Route optimization algorithms are presented. By flipped classrooms, the students are encouraged to autonomously face a positioning problem, elaborate the relevant solution and discuss it with professor and colleagues. By participative classworks, the students gain the capability to implement numerical solutions to positioning problems.

Risultati di apprendimento attesi

D1. Knowledge and understanding. Students learn:
a) positioning scenarios, requirements, problems and solutions
b) GNSS systems, observations and data processing
c) Indoor positioning: techniques, technologies and open problems
d) Inertial navigation: principles, observations and navigation equations
e) LBS: general puroposes, applications, issues.
f) Route optimization: topological databases and examples of algorithms


D2. Applying knowledge and understanding.
In the frame of positioning applications, given a specific requirement, students learn how to:
a) design a software solution
b) implement the relevant libray.
More in general, given a specific problem or application, at the end of the course they are able to identify solutions (see below)


D3. Making judgements. Given a positioning application, students learn how to:
a) identify the requirements
b) define all the possibile solutions
c) evaluate their advantages and disadvantages
d) identify the optimal solution


D4. Communication. During the course, students give short presentations on specific topics. Moreover, they write numerical libraries and prepare a report on laboratory activity: during the exam they orally present purposes and results of these activities.


D5. Lifelong learning skills
At the end of the course students have a complete overview of the state of the art of positioning techniques and technologies. Moreover, they have aquired the methodological capability to: 
a) face and solve problems
b) stay updated in a continuously evolving field.

Argomenti trattati

General introduction

The positioning problem. The different scenarios: outdoor and indoor. The different spatial scales, from very local to global. The different user requirements: horizontal, vertical and 3D estimation; accuracy and integrity. Introduction to the techniques.


Reference Frames

RF in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions. Transformations. Earth dynamics. Terrestrial reference frames: ITRF and ETRF. GNSS permanent networks for the frame distribution. ITRF - ETRF Transformations. Cartesian, geodetic and local coordinates: transformations. The Local Level and relevant transformation. The body frame in inertial navigation and relevant transformations. Time systems.


Fundamental tools

Positioning by distances and angles: Least Squares solution. Trajectories estimates: interpolation and filtering. General navigation solutions: Kalman filtering.


GNSS Positioning

GPS, GLONASS, Compass / Beidou and Galileo: space segments, signals and present state. Atomic oscillators and clocks. The phase of a signal. Binary codes and phase carriers: observation equations. Propagation in the atmosphere: delay, refraction and attenuation. Phases: initial ambiguities and cycle slips. Multipath. Pure code single / double frequency point positioning; phase filtered code single / double frequency point positioning. Precise point positioning by phases. Assisted GNSS and WAAS systems.The RINEX format. The NMEA format.

Geodetic GNSS. Double differences and baselines estimation: RTK approach for precise real time navigation.


Indoor positioning

Measuring approaches: centralized and distributed. Measuring principles: ToA, ToF, TDoA, RTT, AoA. Measuring technologies: cameras and optical systems; infrared systems, active beacons, imaging of natural radiation, imaging of artificial lights; WI-FI and Bluetooth; Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): active and passive. Data processing: Cell of Origin, multilateration, fingerprinting. 


Inertial positioning

The Inertial Navigation System and its components.Inertial Measurement Units: accelerometers and gyroscopes. Examples: spring accelerometer and optic gyroscope: the observation equations. Fundamental rotation and rotation rates: the navigation equations from the body frame to ETRF. Kalman integration with other techniques.


Location Based Services

Location and trajectory aware LBS. Applications: point of interest search; mass market, specialized, industrial and emergency management applications. Active and passive LBS. Privacy issues. Spatial uncertainty management. LBS management and Services: databases, updating, interoperability and standards. Satellite borne images in LBS. Open Location Services. LBS and VGI. Routing issues; networks graphs and topology. Route optimization: the Dijkstra algorithm.



Students participate to classwork sessions in which they face and solve simplified but significant GNSS and positioning problems by implementing original software. Each student consigns the produced software.



Students work in small groups. GNSS datasets are aquired by each group. Data are merged, processed and analyzed by GNSS and statistical libraries. Then, results are discussed: each group prepares and presents a final report.



Mathematics and Statistics are used in the course, therefore having completed both Calculus and Statistics courses is highly recommended. Terrestrial surveying techniques are sometime mentioned and integrated with the methods of this course: having a general basis on them is useful.

Numerical problems will be proposed in classworks: the first ones are very simple and the complexity increases during the course. In any case, a preliminary capability to implement libraries in a computing environment is recommended. 

Modalità di valutazione

A 0-32 scale is used to grade the exam. It is based on the evaluation of the group laboratory report, the individual classwork libraries and an oral individual examination.

The students are asked to consign the laboratory report and classwork libraries two weeks before the exam date: completness/clarity/correctness of the laboratory report and functioning/structuring of the libraries are preliminarly checked.

The exam is oral and individual.

It starts with a short discussion of laboratory work and results: the group report and this discussion can give up to 3 points.

Then, the student is asked to describe one specific classwork library: the general check of all the libraries and this discussion can give up to 5 point. 

The oral exam on theory follows. The first questions are on very fundamental points of the program. By the following questions, the capability of the student to face more complex and in-depth parts are examined. During the exam, the questions move through all the macro-topics of program (bold titles in the above list). The oral exam typically lasts about 30 minutes and gives up to 24 points.

The sum of the 3 contributions (lab+classw+theory) is computed. The exam passes if and only if the part on theory is ≥ 12 and the sum is ≥ 18/32. The laude is given if and only if the part on theory is = 24 and the sum is ≥ 31.

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaSlides of the professor https://beep.metid.polimi.it/

Available in the Beep page of the course

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaA. Leick, L. Rapoport, D. Tatarnikov, GPS Satellite Surveying, 4th Edition, Editore: Wiley, Anno edizione: 2015, ISBN: 9781118675571
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaR. Mautz, Indoor positioning Technologies, Editore: ETH Zurich, Anno edizione: 2012 https://www.research-collection.ethz.ch/bitstream/handle/20.500.11850/54888/eth-5659-01.pdf

PhD thesis

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaJ. Schiller, A. Voisard, Location-Based Services 1st Edition, Editore: Elsevier, Anno edizione: 2004, ISBN: 9781558609297

Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
Ore di studio autonome
Laboratorio Informatico
Laboratorio Sperimentale
Laboratorio Di Progetto
Totale 100:00 150:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese

Note Docente
schedaincarico v. 1.6.5 / 1.6.5
Area Servizi ICT