Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2019/2020
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Docente Zaninelli Dario
Cfu 8.00 Tipo insegnamento Monodisciplinare

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

The course focuses on the evolution of power systems needed to enable a significant supply from Renewable Energy Sources (RES).

After an introduction about fundamentals of power systems, with a focus on distribution networks, the main elements of the regulatory framework are introduced.

Market activities (generation; wholesale and retail) are discussed by contrast with regulated activities. Then, a particular emphasis is devoted to incentive systems related to RES, both at European and national level. The particular reference to the Italian context will be reflected in the possibility of detailing the mechanisms for encouraging the various renewable energy sources, mainly based on feed-in tariffs: from the system of green certificates, to the specific incentivisation mechanism for PV energy, the so-called “Conto Energia”. Further economic specifications (investment costs & returns) will be given, related to electric energy produced from RES. The Italian regulatory framework will be illustrated in details, also with respect to permitting issues.

A second part of the course will focus on the impact of RES on the electricity system (market & networks). Market rules should ensure that conventional power stations are suitably operated even in the presence of large contributions from renewable generation; the different role that will be covered from RES generators with some degree of programmability, as mini-hydro, biomasses and biogas, will also be highlighted. The impact on networks will be covered: transmission system will be mainly impacted by the massive contribution of wind energy; as for Distribution Networks (DN, medium & low voltage) it will be highlighted as the current structure does not allow the full integration of RES injections into the system.

The evolution of DN will be addressed in the context of smart grid perspective to which distribution systems are gradually moving. For this topic, some details about technical solutions, and about the use of ICT as enabling key will be given.

Finally, some case studies and real life implementations will be described, with the relevant KPI, related mainly to costs incurred by the system and expected benefits; these real life case studies will focus on: smartening the distribution networks; full scale deployment of 2G smart meters; TERNA pilot projects on storage systems.

Risultati di apprendimento attesi

The student manages basic power system calculation tools (Boucherot method; Newton method) for solving simple/advanced network calculations.

The student manages suitably the principles of regulation of power systems, and shows that he has fully understood the logical connections between the subjects and actors of the electricity value chain.

The student is able to identify the impacts of RES on power systems and to understand the main technical implications of such impacts.

The student is able to describe both qualitatively and mathematically the functioning principle of the main parameters of MV electric systems (load currents; voltage profiles; rapid voltage changes).

The student is able to describe both qualitatively and mathematically the basic aspects of benefits/costs analysis related to pilot projects on power systems.

The student is able to apply the advanced knowledge described above to:

  • solve simple cases of Power Flow analysis;
  • perform a business plan of a simple RES initiative (PV plant);
  • compute imbalance charges for some typical power plant configurations;
  • solve simple cases of cost-benefit analysis.

Argomenti trattati

Topic 1 – Electric Power Systems. Introduction to the course; overview of power systems; transmission networks; distribution networks. Review of power system theory. Statement and solution strategies of the power flow problem.

Topic 2 - Electricity market. Electricity market design in the Italian system. Integration of electricity markets in EU: relevant issues for Italian system (congestions) and regulatory implications.

Topic 3 – The international energy policy and regulatory framework. The EU 2020 strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy and the EU climate package. The EU policies promoting RES and the EU RES support mechanisms. The main challenges to energy regulation resulting from high penetration of RES. Member States progress in reaching RES targets at 2020.

Topic 4 - The national regulatory framework. Italian National Renewable Energy Action Plan. Statistical data on RES in Italy at 2011. RES generation in Italy: the Green Certificates. Criteria and procedures for granting the support. Legislative/regulatory framework. Photovoltaic solar generation in Italy: the feed-in premium scheme. Criteria and procedures for granting the support. Regulatory framework for market activities and for fully regulated industries.

Topic 5 – Impact of RES on electricity markets. Impacts on IPEX (low market liquidity, high price volatility, etc.). Impacts on MSD (more adequacy and security problems). Regulatory resolutions and perspectives.

Topic 6 – Impact of RES on transmission and distribution network planning and operation. Integration of RES (transmission networks); DG in the power system (distribution networks): a Hosting Capacity approach. Limits to dispersed generation on Italian MV networks: voltage regulation and interface protection system (IPS).

Topic 7 – Network open access. RES and grid access: connection procedures and charges. Rules for dispatching RES. Dedicated mechanisms and schemes. Technical rules for connection for HV (wind farms; large CHP); MV and LV networks (photovoltaic; small CHP).

Topic 8 – Basic elements for investment evaluation. Case studies: calculate the payback time for a wind farm. Case studies: calculate the payback time for a photovoltaic plant.

Topic 9 – Evolving networks toward smart grids. Active distribution networks: drivers of evolution and main purposes. New operation criteria for distribution networks: DG providing ancillary services; energy storage systems connected to transmission/distribution grids. Information and Communication Technologies: shared vs dedicated communication infrastructures, performance requirements. The innovative functions of smart grids: automatic selection of faulty branches, innovative Interface Protection with transfer trip, voltage control. The innovative functions of smart grids: emergency limitation/regulation of active power, monitoring of DG injections, recharging infrastructure for electric vehicles, enabling demand-response strategies (smart info). The new model of distribution network: overall system architecture.

Topic 10 – Italian smart grid projects. EU initiatives for smart grids. The new role of DSO in the perspective of a local dispatching. Smart grids demonstration projects: key features and expected benefits. Italian incentives for smart grids and smart meters (R.O. 39/10): input based regulation. Storage projects by TERNA.


The course makes use of mathematical formalism developed in the course of “RES and network interface”. Moreover, a basic knowledge of electrotechnics and power systems is assumed. Also, basic fundamentals of economics are needed.

Modalità di valutazione

The students’ preparation is checked by means of an examination which can be undertaken during the final evaluation period at the end of the semester period or by any other available session. The examination consists of a written test and an oral test, which must be taken in the same call. The oral exam is at the teacher's discretion and in any case is subject to the achievement, after the written exam, of a grade higher than 24/30. The oral test is compulsory to confirm a score exceeding 27/30.

In the written test, the student is asked to solve both numerical problems and to present specific topics of the program. Their evaluation is based on formal and numerical performance.

The written test is intended to ascertain the ability to:

  • solve simple cases of Power Flow analysis;
  • perform a business plan of a simple RES initiative (PV plant);
  • compute imbalance charges for some typical power plant configurations;
  • solve simple cases of cost-benefit analysis.

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaBaldwin R., Cave M., Understanding Regulation. Theory, Strategy and Practice, Editore: Oxford Univ. Press., Anno edizione: 1999
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaMarzi G., Prosperetti L., Putzu E., La regolazione dei servizi infrastrutturali , Editore: Il Mulino - Bologna, Anno edizione: 2001
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaFumagalli; Lo Schiavo; Delestre, Service Quality Regulation in Electricity Distribution and Retail, Editore: Springer, Anno edizione: 2007

Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
Ore di studio autonome
Laboratorio Informatico
Laboratorio Sperimentale
Laboratorio Di Progetto
Totale 80:00 120:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
schedaincarico v. 1.6.1 / 1.6.1
Area Servizi ICT