Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2019/2020
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Insegnamento 052407 - ENERGY SYSTEMS
Docente Gatti Manuele
Cfu 8.00 Tipo insegnamento Monodisciplinare

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

The course aims at providing the theory, methods and analytical tools required to design conventional energy conversion systems for the production of electricity and thermal power, while understanding their operating principles and quantitatively assessing their performance at design and off-design conditions.

Risultati di apprendimento attesi

Students are expected to acquire knowledge and understanding in:

1.     Applied engineering thermodynamics and energy conversion processes.

2.     Methodology and main tools for the analysis and design of energy conversion systems (i.e., calculation of thermodynamic properties of fluids, mass and energy balance equations, selection and sizing criteria of the main pieces of equipment).

3.     Available technologies (configurations, equipment units, materials) and state of the art approach in the design and operation of conventional energy conversion systems such as turbomachinery, combustion devices, heat exchangers, steam cycles, gas cycles, combined cycles and cogeneration systems.

Students are expected to develop the capability of applying the above described knowledge to:

1.     Develop mathematical models for designing and assessing the performance of the main equipment units, thermodynamic cycles and process schemes relevant to power production applications.

2.     Describe the operating principles of traditional energy conversion technologies for the production of electricity and heat, and evaluate them from an engineering point of view, by: drawing and describing process flow diagrams including key components, writing and solving mass and energy balance equations, calculating the key performance indexes, determining the flue gas composition and pollutant emission, assessing the techno-economic feasibility of steam, gas and combined cycles.

Students are expected to develop the following learning skills:

1.     Critically analyze and discuss the layout, design and sizing of energy conversion systems according to the criteria and methodology acquired during the course.

Argomenti trattati


  1. Energy scenario: seminar giving an overview of the world energy context, covering energy demand, production, expected evolution and future challenges.
  1. Thermodynamic properties of working fluids: equations of state, phase diagrams, thermophysical properties calculation for ideal gases, gas mixtures, vapors and liquids.
  1. Mass and Energy balance analysis of energy systems: Energy balance equations (1st law analysis) of energy conversion systems. Applications to the basic processes encountered in energy conversion systems. Reactive systems and combustion.
  1. Fuels and combustions principles: Basic properties of fossil and renewable fuels, stoichiometry and energy balance of combustion reactions; brief outline of chemical equilibrium and kinetics relevant to combustion.
  1. Environmental impact of energy systems, pollutant formation and abatement: Kinetics of pollutant formation in combustion processes (CO, NOx, SOx, HC, PM). Basic principles of best available pollutant abatement technologies.
  1. Heat exchangers: Overview on types and classification. Global heat transfer coefficient. Log Mean Temperature Difference. Basic features and sizing criteria of the heat exchangers utilized in large energy conversion systems.
  1. Turbomachinery: Brief overview on the configuration, working principles and efficiency definition of pumps, fans, compressors and turbines (introduction to nondimensional analysis of fluid machines, Baljè diagram and performance maps).
  1. Steam Cycles and Steam Generators: Basic thermodynamic features and configuration. Regeneration and reheat. Optimization of operating parameters. Interaction between cycle parameters, size and turbo-machine performance. Architecture and basic issues of steam generators. Material issues. Modern Ultra-Super-Critical plants. Case study on heat rejection by a large power plant.
  1. Gas turbines and combined cycles: Basic thermodynamic features and configuration of Joule-Brayton cycles. Regeneration, intercooling and reheat. Choice of cycle parameters vs type of service and application. Material issues and blade cooling. Motivation and basic features of combined cycle configuration. Heat Recovery Steam Generators.
  1. Cogeneration: Meaning and motivation of cogeneration. Applications to steam cycles, gas turbine, combined cycles and internal combustion engines. District heating applications. Performance indexes.

Lecture notes/presentations will be published out during classes and made available to the course students. These may be integrated with specific textbooks; however, since the course covers a wide range of topics, there is no single book that can be suggested. Several books cover the single topics of the course and are suggested just in case a more in-depth study of single topics is required, although not necessary to pass the exam. An example of such text books is reported in the "Bibliography" section below.


In order to proficiently understand the topics of the course, the student should have a solid knowledge of the following topics taught in the bachelor level:

- Basic Thermodynamics, thermodynamic principles, basic thermodynamic cycles [1]

- Basic principles and equations of heat transfer phenomena (conduction, convection, radiation) [2]

- Fundamentals of fluid-mechanics (Bernoulli equation, Darcy law, hydraulics and compressible flows) [3]


[1] H. Struchtrup: Thermodynamics and Energy Conversion – chapters 1-9: http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-662-43715-5/page/1

[2]  F. P. Incropera, D. P. Dewitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, 6th ed. 2006. ISBN-13: 978-0471457282

[3] Bruce R. Munson, Alric P. Rothmayer, Theodore H. Okiishi, Wade W. Huebsch: Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 7th Edition, John Wiley, 2012– chapters 1--3, 7-8 and 12.

Modalità di valutazione

The exam consists of a written exam followed by an oral exam.


The written examination is divided into two parts: the first part consists of two numerical problems, the second part of two open, theoretical questions. Consulting books or lecture notes is allowed for the first part (numerical problems) but not for the second.

The theory section of the written test will assess the knowledge and understanding of the fundamental concepts taught during the course, whereas the numerical exercises will test the ability to apply the knowledge to quantitative problems relevant to real field applications, similar to the ones presented during the course.


The grade of the written test will span the range from 0/30 to 30/30.

Solutions where either part one (numerical problems) or part two (theoretical questions) is completely missing, will not be graded. 


The oral exam is mandatory. The oral test consists of two questions aimed at assessing the capability to critically analyze and discuss the technical aspects of the energy conversion systems described during the course.

The oral test will establish the final grade and can yield either an increase of the score obtained in the written test or a decrease of such score.

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaMichael J. Moran, Howard N. Shapiro, Daisie D. Boettner, Margaret B. Bailey, Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics, 8th Edition, SI Version, Editore: John Wiley, Anno edizione: 2015, ISBN: 978-1-118-96088-2
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaR. Kehlhofer, F. Hannemann, F. Stirnimann, B. Rukes, Combined Cycle Gas & Steam Turbine Power Plants, Editore: PennWell, Anno edizione: 2009, ISBN: 101-59370-168-3
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaH. Spliethoff, Power Generation from Solid Fuels, Editore: Springer, Anno edizione: 2010, ISBN: 978-3-642-02855-7
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaS.L. Dixon and C.A. Hall, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery, Sixth Edition, Editore: Elsevier, Anno edizione: 2010, ISBN: 978-1-85617-793-1 www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9781856177931
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaF. P. Incropera, D. P. Dewitt, T. L. Bergman, A. S. Lavine, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Editore: John Wiley & Sons, Anno edizione: 2006, ISBN: 978-0471457282

Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
Ore di studio autonome
Laboratorio Informatico
Laboratorio Sperimentale
Laboratorio Di Progetto
Totale 80:00 120:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese
schedaincarico v. 1.6.1 / 1.6.1
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