Sound Fields: Pressure, Free, Diffuse fields; Sound Pressure Level (SPL), unit, measurement. Phonometers.
Classification, principle of transductions, moving coil microphones, condenser microphones. Electro‑mechanical models.
Sensitivity: definition, unit, measurement, dependence on microphone characteristics.
Pickup patterns: omnidirectional, bidirectional, cardioid, supercardioid, Hypercardioid; omnidirectionality limit; multiple pattern microphones; interference tube microphones.
Frequency response: diaphragm size dependence, proximity effect and electronic compensation, low‑frequency response control, static pressure equalization vent, wind screens.
Microphone noise: origin, physical-mathematical model, measurement, unit, typical values.
Dynamic range: measurement microphones, sound reinforcement microphones.
Microphone front-end electronics: architecture, preamplifier and output stage, output impedance. Wireless microphones.
Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) microphones: silicon technology, MEMS process, fabrication steps, specifications. MEMS microphones and processing electronics integrated systems.
Professional microphones for voice and musical instruments: specification sheets of AKG, Neumann, Shure devices.
Magnetic and piezoelectric pickups: principle of operation, impedance, frequency response, dynamic range.
Introduction: principles of electromagnetism.
Loudspeaker drivers 1: Structure and classification. Working principle. Low frequency modeling by equivalent circuits in electrical, mechanical and acoustical domains. Loudspeaker enclosures: closed and vented box, passive radiator. Other acoustic loads: horns, compression chambers, phase plugs. Elements of mid and high frequency design and performance.
Loudspeaker drivers 2: Loudspeaker measurements: electrical impedance, frequency response, harmonic distortion, directivity. Techniques and tools for loudspeaker driver design. Study and characterization of the nonlinear behavior of loudspeakers.
Loudspeaker systems design: the full range speaker, passive and active crossovers and filters, DSP processing, loudspeaker specifications: sensitivity, rated power, impedance, directivity. Practical analysis and test of a K-array speaker.
Line array arrangement: physical principles, history, electronically steerable arrays, subwoofer arrays, simulation in acoustic cad, application examples, listening session.