Ing - Civ (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (488) INGEGNERIA CIVILE - CIVIL ENGINEERING
052326 - SEISMIC MICROZONATION AND URBAN PLANNING (I.C.)
The main objective of this course is to provide future civil engineers fundamental tools of geophysical analysis to develop advanced microzoning analyses to support urban and land use plans in seismic prone areas.
A number of other objectives are correlated with the above mentioned main one. First students will acquire a broader understanding of the need to develop analyses and perform tests the results of which are useful for other users and implemented in other fields, such as in this case planning. Second, they will be informed of advanced methodologies that have been developed in research and then transferred to practitioners to characterize the local response of soils to the seismic input and which may significantly stress buildings and structures. Third they will get an understanding of what is urban planning and of how scientific data such as that derived from geophysical analyses and microzoning should be prepared and organised so as to be useful and used for reducing seismic risk in urban areas.
Risultati di apprendimento attesi
The course aims at make students acquire competencies and skills about the following:
Knowledge and understanding: the students will acquire knowledge of fundamental tools, models and applications of geophysics and an extended overview of advanced microzoning methods to characterize a given area in terms of the potential amplification and instability effects that an earthquake may trigger given local geological and geomorphological conditions. Students will be also introduced to the currently important topic of “useful science” as results of geophysical analyses and microzoning become relevant if adopted as a key input in planning and in building construction practices.
Applying knowledge and understanding: students will develop capabilities to carry out geophysical analyses and a microzoning study and to apply the results of the latter in decisions regarding functional zonation, location of critical infrastructures, determination of population density and concentration made through urban and land use plans. A number of practical applications will complement theoretical lessons and a final exercise will actually regard the translation of the results of a microzoning study into a real urban plan.
Making judgments: students will be required to critically reflect on the results of the analyses and models run to assess the potential values of amplification and instability effects triggered by an earthquake. Furthermore they will be asked to provide the results of models and applications in a way that can be managed and implemented into an urban plan.
Communication skills: students will acquire the correct terminology in the field of geophysical analysis, microzoning studies and urban planning. They will be asked also to become capable of explaining and representing the results of technical analyses, such as those included in a microzoning study to users with a different disciplinary background such as planners. Students will be requested to discuss in particular the final exercise bridging between geophysical analyses and planning with appropriate representation means and correct and comprehensible language.
As for the geophysical part it will be taught using a combination of face to face lessons, innovative tools consisting in a series of videos that have been developed purposely for this specific course, and laboratory experiments. The following topics will be addressed in particular: Nondestructive test for the in-situ characterization: shear wave velocity; SH refraction, SH reflection – imaging and velocity, Surface wave methods, Crosshole, downhole, uphole; sCPT sDMT, laboratory; High resolution P-wave reflection- capable fault imaging; Acquisition, processing and inversion of surface waves.
As for the microzoning aspect the following topics will be discussed: Definition of amplification and instability effects, geotechnical parameters related to stable and unstable conditions; Different levels of the microzonation: level 1, 2, 3, procedure and results; Evaluation of the amplification factors using experimental and numerical approaches; Construction of the seismic microzonation maps and relationship with the Local Seismic Response.
In the second part of the course, students will be introduced to basic definitions and explanation on what is land use, spatial and urban planning and key concepts such as scale, urban functions, land value will be explained. The course will focus on those components of risk on which planners may directly act, such as exposure, vulnerability and resilience while the uptake of seismic hazard characterization and microzoning studies will be extensively discussed and available example provided through the use of case studies. Finally fundamental elements of planning in a multi-hazard and multi-risk environment will be shown integrating mitigation measures specifically oriented towards earthquake risk reduction with mitigation measures for other risks, that may be either triggered by earthquakes (tsunami, landslides) or co-existing in the same area (snowstorms, floods).
Fundamentals of geology and geomorphology are preliminary to the concepts, models and applications of geophysical analysis and therefore constitute pre-requirements of the course. No particular requirements for the urban planning part.
Modalità di valutazione
Students will be evaluated on the basis of a final unique oral exam, in which students will be required to discuss the final exercise and will be asked questions regarding the theoretical aspects of geophysical analysis, microzoning models and applications, and urban and land use planning.
Evaluation criteria will include the mastering of a correct professional language and critical understanding of concepts and their application in the examples carried out during the course.
Students will have to demonstrate:
- the acquired knowledge about the topics of the course;
- their capabilities to apply the acquired knowledge and skills discussing examples, answering to questions and developing exercises;
- their capabilities to carry out technical analyses in a seismic area to support the implementation of their results in urban and land use plans.