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Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2018/2019
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Insegnamento 097509 - ELECTRON MICROSCOPIES AND SPINTRONICS [I.C.]
Docente Bertacco Riccardo , Tagliaferri Alberto
Cfu 10.00 Tipo insegnamento Corso Integrato

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - BV (478) NUCLEAR ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA NUCLEARE*AZZZZ097726 - NANOMAGNETISM AND SPINTRONICS
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (486) ENGINEERING PHYSICS - INGEGNERIA FISICA*AZZZZ097509 - ELECTRON MICROSCOPIES AND SPINTRONICS [I.C.]
097726 - NANOMAGNETISM AND SPINTRONICS
097603 - ELECTRON MICROSCOPIES

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

Section 1: ELECTRON MICROSCOPIES

The course aims at providing a picture of the electronic probe microscopy techniques as general as possible, starting from the basics of the major techniques and examples of prototypical applications up to state of the art scientific cases. The main goal is to provide the student with the ability of assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of microscopic measurements to tackle a given problem. The couse will focus on the information that can be obtained (morphology, chemical contrast, short-and long-range structure, spectroscopy) and on the choice of the microscopic techniques that can be effectively employed to investigate a system in a given environment.

 

Section 2: SPINTRONICS

Nanomagentism is a modern discipline devoted to the study of magnetism in nanoscale objects. The "nano-world" opens unforeseen possibilities to develop new devices and paradigms exploiting the spin and orbital angular momentum of electrons and other quasi-particles (e.g. domain walls, magnons) propagating in engineered magnetic structures. Spintronics, in particular, is a branch of nanoelectronics aiming at developing new electronic devices taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom in addition to the charge of carriers. The aim of this course is to present the fundamentals of micro and nanomagnetism necessary to understand the recent developments in the field of spintronics. A platform for micromagnetic simulation will be also presented, in order to provide the students with the essential tools for designing and analysing magnetic nano-devices. Finally, the lectures of the last part of the course are intended to review the recent advances in the field.


Risultati di apprendimento attesi

Section 1: ELECTRON MICROSCOPIES

- The student knows the fundamentals of electron and scanning probe microscopies microscopy: she/he is able to draw the layout of a microscope and to comment its main assembly in terms of fundamental Physics (main phenomena and their order of magnitude).

- The student is able to select the most appropriate microscopical approach, within the range of techniques discussed, to address a standard problem in material microscopy and to discuss its advantages and disadvantages with respect to the other techniques.

- The student is able to read critically the scientific literature on microscopy: she/he is able to explain and discuss the techniques adopted by researchers and the evidences supporting their conclusions, eventually proposing a different approach to attain the same or and improved result.

 

Section 2: SPINTRONICS

Knowledge and understanding

Upon passing the exam, the student:

- knows the principles of micromagnetism

- knows the basic analytical and computational approaches to calculate the micromagnetic configuration of a system

- knows the foundations of spintronics

- understands the structure and behaviour of conventional spintronic devices

- understands a scientific paper dealing with nanomagnetism and spintronics

 

Applying knowledge and understanding

Upon passing the exam, the student:

- is able to solve analytical problems connected to magnetism and spintronics

- is able to use a micromagnetic software (OOMMF) for the computation of static and dynamic micromagnetic configurations

- is able to design the basic structure of a spintronic device

 

Making judgements, Communication, Lifelong learning skills

Students who decide to prepare a project on micromagnetic simulation, as alternative to the written test:

- are able to model a real micromagnetic problem, identifying the relevant parameters and factors to be taken into account

- are able to solve a realistic problem and draw a general conclusion on the optimization work carried out via simulations

- are able to present their work in a report mimicking a scientific paper

- are able to communicate their work during the oral examination


Argomenti trattati

Section 1: ELECTRON MICROSCOPIES

Topics

- Probes with high spatial resolution and state of the art in research and applications.

- Interaction of free electrons and bound electrons with matter.

- Information obtained by using electronic probes.

 

a) Far field electron microscopy

- Introduction to electron microscopy

- Diffraction limit and ray optics

- The scanning electron microscope (SEM)

  - Interaction between electron and matter

  - Secondary electron contrast

  - Depth of field

  - Charging and other imaging artifacts

  - Back-scattered electron contrast

  - Auger and X-ray Micro-spectroscopy probes in SEM

- The transmission electron microscope (TEM)

  - Sample preparation

  - Bright and dark field imaging

  - The mass-thickness contrast

  - Direct and reciprocal space imaging

  - The diffraction contrast

  - The phase contrast

- The scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)

  - Electron energy loss spectroscopy in STEM

- Ultrafast time resolution

 

b) Scanning probe microscopies

- Introduction to scanning probe microscopy

- Elements of a scanning-probe microscope

- Tip-sample forces

- Static AFM operation: constant height and constant force- Shift in the natural frequency of a harmonic oscillator under a force gradient

- Amplitude-modulation dynamic AFM operation

- Dynamic AFM operation: sensitivity in amplitude modulation, frequency-modulation techniques

- Noise and resolution in AFM

- Image analysis in AFM

- Magnetic force microscopy

- Other magnetic microscopy techniques

- Imaging artifacts in scanning probe microscopy

- Scanning near-field optical microscopy

- Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

- Introduction to scanning tunneling microscopy

- Bardeen approach (time-dependent perturbation theory) to the tunneling current

- WKB approximation for the evaluation of the tunneling probability

- Atomic resolution with STM

- Scanning tunneling spectroscopy

 

Workshops

Image analysis and practical testing of research instrumentation.

 

Schedule

The couse will be held in the first half of the first term, from mid September to the beginning og November.

 

Notes

The range and detail of the course will be adapted to the level of the class during the course and may change significantly.

 

Section 2: SPINTRONICS

 

Micro and NANO magnetism
Demagnetizing field, magnetostatic energy. Landau magnetic free energy and its contributions (exchange, anisotropies, magnetostrictions). Domain walls. Micromagnetic simulations (OOMMF). Coherent magnetization reversal (Stoner Wohlfart model) and reversal via propagation of domain walls. Magnetic nanoparticles. Domain wall conduits. Magnetic coupling in multilayers (Néel coupling, Exchange bias, Bilinear coupling).

MOTT-Spintronics
Two currents model and spin dependent scattering. Giant magnetoresistance in CIP and CPP configurations. Spin accumulation and Valet-Fert model. Tunneling magnetoresistance and magnetic tunneling junctions. Non volatile magnetic memories (MRAMs) and magnetic sensors. Spin transfer torque. Magneto-electric coupling. Spin injection, manipulation and detection in semiconductors.

Spinorbitronics
Rashba based devices and Spin-FET. Spin currents. Direct and inverse spin Hall effect. Antiferromagnet spintronics.

 

Laboratory activities

Laboratory instruction in specific techniques of magnetic characterization of materials and devices will be provided, at the laboratory of Nanomagnetism located within the facility Polifab.

 


Prerequisiti

The program is designed for students of the Engineering Physics course, but  students from the electronic engineering, material science and nanotechnology courses may also benefit from this course. A good knowledge of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics and solid state physics is required.


Modalità di valutazione

Section 1: ELECTRON MICROSCOPIES

The exam consists of an oral test in two parts of about half an hour each, one about Electron Microscopy and the other about Scanning Probe microscopy.

In each part:

- The student asked to present selected topics of the course, starting from the fundamentals through increasing level of detail and difficulty.

- The student will be asked to select its microscopic technique of choice to address a scientific case and to comment about the limits of application, advantages, and disadvantages.

- The student will be required to briefly present a scientific paper, chosen in agreement with the teacher, where electron or SPM microscopies is the main investigation techniques. The presentation will be focused on the information attained by the use of microscopy and the technical approach adopted to obtain it.

 

Section 2: SPINTRONICS

The examimation is made of two parts: (i) a written test (1 hour) with some exercises , (ii) an oral examination. The written test can be replaced with a project on the micromagnetic simulation and investigation of selected magnetic structures.


Bibliografia
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaR. F. Egerton, Physical Principles of Electron Microscopy: An Introduction to TEM, SEM, AEM, Editore: Springer, Anno edizione: 2008, ISBN: 978-0-387-25800-3
Note:

textbook for the TEM and SEM section

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaC. Colliex, La microscopie éléctronique, Editore: Presses universitaires de France, Anno edizione: 1998, ISBN: 978-2-1304-8665-7 http://www.stem.lps.u-psud.fr/la-microscopie-electronique
Note:

Introductory reading on TEM, in French.

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaI. M. Watt, The principles and Practice of Electron Microscopy, Editore: Cambridge University Press, Anno edizione: 1997 0-521-43591-9
Note:

Advanced text on Electron Microscopy

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaUnknown, A practical guide to Scanning Probe Microscopy, Editore: VEECO, Anno edizione: 2005 http://www.veeco.com/pdfs/library/SPM_Guide_0829_05_166.pdf
Note:

Introduction to Scanning Probe Microscopy by a well-known manufacturer

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaE. Meyer, H. J. Hug, R. Bennewitz, Scanning Probe Microscopy: The Lab on a Tip, Editore: Springer, Anno edizione: 2003, ISBN: 3-540-43180-2
Note:

Examples of applications

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaS. Blundell, Magnetism in Condensed Matter, Editore: Oxford Master Series in Physics, Anno edizione: 2001, ISBN: 978-0-19-850591-4
Note:

Textbook on principles of magnetism.

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaJ. M. D. Coey, Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Editore: Cambridge, Anno edizione: 2010, ISBN: 9780521816144
Note:

Handbook of magnetism, covering all aspects of micro magnetism, materials and basic concepts of spintronics.

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaAmikam Aharoni, Introduction to the Theory of Ferromagnetism, Editore: Oxford University Press, Anno edizione: 2001, ISBN: 0198508093
Note:

Very good textbook on ferromagnetism and micro magnetism.

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaSupriyo Bandyopadhyay, Marc Cahay, Introduction to spintronics, II edition, Editore: CRC Press, Anno edizione: 2015, ISBN: 9781482255560
Note:

Textbook on spintronics


Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
(hh:mm)
Ore di studio autonome
(hh:mm)
Lezione
74:00
111:00
Esercitazione
18:00
27:00
Laboratorio Informatico
0:00
0:00
Laboratorio Sperimentale
8:00
12:00
Laboratorio Di Progetto
0:00
0:00
Totale 100:00 150:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese
schedaincarico v. 1.6.1 / 1.6.1
Area Servizi ICT
04/04/2020