Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2018/2019
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Insegnamento 095839 - ENERGY SYSTEMS LM
Docente Consonni Stefano
Cfu 7.00 Tipo insegnamento Monodisciplinare

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

The course aims at providing an overview of state-of-the-art as well as the fundamentals and key analysis tools to understand, design and operate conventional energy conversion systems for the production of electricity, heat and cooling power. 

Risultati di apprendimento attesi

Students are expected to acquire knowledge and understanding in:

  1. Advanced applied thermodynamics (exergy analysis) and energy conversion processes.
  2. main tools to analyze and design energy conversion systems (i.e., mass, energy and exergy balance equations, economic analysis, fundamentals of combustion processes and pollutant emissions, recommended design and operational rules)
  3. available technologies (materials, equipment units) and the design/operating principles of conventional energy conversion systems such as combustion devices, steam cycles, gas cycles, combined cycles and refrigeration cycles.

Students are expected to develop the capability of applying the above described knowledge to: -

  1. Develop models of the main equipment units and conversion processes of energy systems
  2. Perform energy/economic analysis of conventional energy conversion systems for the production of electricity, heat and refrigeration power (i.e., writing and solving mass, energy and exergy balance equations, evaluate the key performance indexes, assess the flue gas composition and pollutant emissions, evaluate possible design and operational issues)
  3. Make judgements on their techno-economic feasibility and performance.

Argomenti trattati

Energy scenario: seminar giving an overview of world energy demand, production, expected evolution.

Fuels and combustions: Basic properties of fossil fuels, stoichiometry and energy balance of combustion reactions, evaluation of parameters relevant for the assessment of the performance of fossil fuel-fired energy systems.

Pollutant formation and abatement: Kinetics of pollutant formation in combustion processes (CO, NOx, HC, PM). Basic principles of primary and secondary abatement technologies for steam cycles and gas turbines.

Steam Cycles: Basic thermodynamic features and configuration. Regeneration and reheat. Optimization of operating parameters. Interaction between cycle parameters, scale and turbo-machine performance. Architecture and basic issues of steam generators. Material issues. Modern Ultra-Super-Critical plants.

1st and 2nd Law analysis: Energy balances of energy conversion systems. Fundamentals of 2nd Law analysis. Applications to the basic processes encountered in energy conversion systems. Reactive systems and combustion.

Gas turbines and combined cycles: Basic thermodynamic features and configuration of Joule cycles. Regeneration, intercooling and reheat. Choice of cycle parameters vs type of duty and application. Material issues and blade cooling. Motivation and basic features of combined cycle configuration. Heat Recovery Steam Generators.

Economic analysis: Basic approach and tools to evaluate the cost of electricity. Comparative analysis of most relevant fossil fuel-based and renewable-source-based power plants.

Heat exchangers & steam generators: Architecture, basic features and issues of the heat exchangers utilized in large energy conversion systems. Case study on heat rejection by a large power plant.

Cogeneration: Meaning and motivation of cogeneration. Applications to steam cycles, gas turbine and combined cycles, internal combustion engines. District heating applications. Performance indexes.

Refrigeration cycles and heat pumps: Inverse thermodynamic cycles. Choice of working fluids and configuration. Multi-level arrangement.


In order to proficiently understand the topics of the course, the student should have a solid knowledge of the following topics taught in the bachelor level:

- Thermodynamics, thermodynamic properties of ideal gases and water (internal energy, enthalpy, entropy and their fundamental relationships), thermodynamic principles, main reversible/real thermodynamic processes (isothermal compression/expansion, adiabatic transformations, etc), basic thermodynamic cycles [1]

- Basic principles and equations of heat transfer phenomena (conduction, convection, radiation)

- Fundamentals of fluid-mechanics (Bernoulli equation, Darcy law, hydraulics and compressible flows)

- Fundamentals of turbomachines (operating principles of turbines and compressors/pumps), isentropic efficiency of turbomachines, nondimensional analysis of fluid machines [2]


[1] H. Struchtrup: Thermodynamics and Energy Conversion – chapters 1-9: http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-662-43715-5/page/1

[2] S.L. Dixon and C.A. Hall: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery (Sixth Edition) – chapters 1-2: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9781856177931 

Modalità di valutazione

The exam consists of a written examination divided into two parts. The first part consists of two numerical problems focused on application skills, the second part of two open, theoretical questions, focused on knowledge and comprehension. Consulting books or lecture notes is allowed for the first part (numerical problems) but not for the second. One of the two theoretical questions may refer to the topics covered in the exercise lessons.

The grade of each part will span the range from 0/30 to 30/30. The final grade is determined as the average of the grades obtainted in the two parts.

Solutions where either part one (numerical problems) or part two (theoretical questions) is completely missing, will not be graded. Should a student get a final grade of 8/30 or lower, he/she will not be admitted to the subsequent exam session. 

The oral exam is optional. It can be requested if the score of the written exam is above 16/30. If the written exam score is 30 or 30 Lode, the oral exam is mandatory to confirm the score (if the oral is not taken, the score is downgraded to 29). Except for special circumstances, the oral test consists of a single question on the topics of the lectures, seminars, or exercise lessons. The oral test can yield either an increase of the score obtained in the written test of up to 3 points or a (potentially unlimited) decrease of such score .

Students that took the exam of Sistemi Energetici LM in Academic Years antecedent to 2014-15 are allowed to write the solutions in Italian.

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaA. Bejan, Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, Editore: John Wiley, Anno edizione: 2006
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaL. Borel, D. Favrat, Thermodynamics and Energy Systems Analysis, Editore: EPFL Press, Anno edizione: 2010, ISBN: 978-2-940222-45-2
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaK. K. Kuo, Principles of Combustion, 2nd edition, Editore: Wiley-Interscience, Anno edizione: 2005
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaF. P. Incropera, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6th ed., Editore: John Wiley & Sons, Anno edizione: 2006
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaR. Kehlhofer, F. Hannemann, F. Stirnimann, B. Rukes, Combined Cycle Gas & Steam Turbine Power Plants, 3rd ed., Editore: PennWell, Anno edizione: 2009
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaH. Spliethoff, Power Generation from Solid Fuels, Editore: Springer, Anno edizione: 2010

Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
Ore di studio autonome
Laboratorio Informatico
Laboratorio Sperimentale
Laboratorio Di Progetto
Totale 70:00 105:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese
schedaincarico v. 1.6.5 / 1.6.5
Area Servizi ICT