The course History of architecture 1 concerns the study of architecture and city through history and the study of history of architectural techniques in the western world, from antiquity up to the 18th century. The course analyses the main historiographical tendencies, the architectural theories, the formal, spatial and typological expressions, building and structural aspects and the intricate symbolical values which characterize historical buildings, starting from a reflection on the different methods of investigation and interpretation conceived each time and their changes over time.
The discipline, at the beginning of the academic training, aims on one hand to increase and organize the knowledge on the most important buildings and on the main chapters of the history of architecture of the western world from antiquity to the 18th century, paying a particular attention to the issues of the study course, which consider these as essential knowledges for the cultural and critical education of an architect. On the other side the course provides, applying those knowledge, the acquisition of a specific method and useful tools for research and critical analysis of the investigated phenomena.
Risultati di apprendimento attesi
Students are expected to reach at the end of the course and the final exams, the following results: to recognize the main monuments and collocate them in their specific historical context; to use the proper architectural vocabulary above all in descriptions; to be able to establish relations between building system, typology and historical context; to evaluate and interpret the acquired data and information, which are all preliminary actions to the production of an independent opinion on the studied architects and buildings.
This course will trace a history of Western Architecture from Antiquity to the 18th century, encouraging students to shape their own critical approaches. By drawing on case studies of key monuments, it will discuss artistic and architectural issues in a broader framework – embracing social, philosophical, economic, and political values – and in light of current cultural and historiographic debates.
The concept of Classical language in architecture will be explored as an essential companion for students and future architects. Classical buildings such as Greek temples, Italian Renaissance palazzi and neoclassical architecture show an awareness of these rules even as they vary, break or contradict them. Lectures and seminars will focus on the way this conceptual framework has changed over centuries and how societies reused, responded to, or rejected its rules in order to forge new meanings and new identities.
A discussion of the rules and elements of the Classical orders and architectural harmony of design and their formulation will be considered in the context of Antiquity, examining Greek and Roman architecture and urban planning.
The impact of politics, social change and religion on Roman architecture will be considered together with instances of appropriation of Classical language. Reuses of spolia in late Roman and Early Christian architecture will then be studied as expressions of a new world view. The importance of Medieval architecture and its successive waves of renewed interest in classicism – in Carolingian, Ottonian, Byzantine and Romanesque architecture –will be discussed together with its subsequent abandonment in Gothic cathedrals. The concept of order, the role of the architect and construction and operation phases in the building of the major European buildings will be explored.
Italy witnessed the greatest of all Classical revivals in Europe, a process which began in Florence during the early 15th century. Classical orders together with rounded arches and domes revived during the Renaissance will be discussed in the light of the new commercial prosperity and competition between city-states, such as Florence, Rome, Venice and Urbino. Lectures will consider theoretical writings, key architects and architectural and building types, as well the role played by wealthy patrons. The Classical founding principles of the Italian Renaissance spread into France and Spain, and into Germany and the Low Countries where Classical architecture continued to flourish throughout the Baroque and Neoclassical ages. Indeed, it was during the late 17th and 18th centuries that the Classical traditions became a permanent feature of Western architecture, through the foundation of academies, with curricula designed to educate students in the light of Classical principles as promoted during the Italian Renaissance. Classicism championed the achievements of ancient Greece and Rome as a standard against which contemporary societies, and their materiality, could be judged.
Modalità di valutazione
Oral examinations will consist of one formal presentation, based on the subject of the course seminars and lectures. Students are strongly encouraged to study the books in the course reading list in order to pass the examination. Further readings will be provided in the end of each class; students are expected to familiarize themselves with this material.
David Watkin, A History of Western Architecture, Editore: Laurence King, Anno edizione: 2000, ISBN: 1856692272
Salvatore Settis, The Future of the Classical, Editore: Polity Press, Anno edizione: 2006, ISBN: 9780745635996
Tipo Forma Didattica
Ore di attività svolte in aula
Ore di studio autonome
Laboratorio Di Progetto
Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese