Industrial and Nuclear Electronics
The course offers an overview of the most common electronic techniques in the industrial and nuclear instrumentation.
Topics of the lectures and the practical sessions.
1) Linear circuit theory and Electronics
1.1 Circuit theory: Ohm and Kirchhoff laws, differential equations and transient analysis , Laplace transform and frequency analysis, transfer functions, Bode plots, feedback and stability.
1.2 Semiconductor electronic devices: PN diode, bipolar junction transistor and field effect transistor.
1.3 Operational Amplifiers: definitions, technology and basic configurations.
2) Operational Amplifiers
2.1 Operational Amplifier parameters: finite gain, input bias currents, input offset voltage, input and output impedances, common mode rejection ratio. Low offset techniques: chopper stabilised and commutating auto zero amplifiers. Transfer functions, closed loop stability, Gain-Bandwidth product, slew rate, full power bandwidth. Large bandwidth amplifiers, current feedback and low phase lag methods.
2.2 Time invariant, linear and nonlinear applications of the Operational Amplifiers: Instrumentation Amplifiers, integrators and differentiators , current-voltage and voltage-current converters, impendence simulators, active filters through simulation (gyrator, FDNR, leap-frog structure) and through cell synthesis (VCVS, MF, UAF). Filter synthesis through programmable analogue circuits, cutting and clamping circuits, threshold and window amplifiers, rectifiers, logarithmic and antilogarithmic circuits, true RMS voltmeters, auxiliary circuits for the A/D conversion (sample & hold.)
3) Nuclear Electronics
Signal induction in radiation detectors, low noise charge preamplifiers, spectroscopy shaping amplifiers, signal to noise ratio, optimum filter, peak stretcher, base line restorer.
4) Industrial Electronics
4.1 Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue conversion: definitions, quantisation error, integral and differential non linearity errors, Shannon theorem and aliasing. Main A/D and D/A conversion techniques: ramp, double ramp, successive approximations, flash, voltage to frequency conversion.
4.2 Analogue filters: ideal and realizable response, frequency transforms approximation methods, all-pass filters. Analysis and comparison of the most common filters (Butterworth, Chebysheff, Legendre, least square, Bessel, Cauer, Gaussian).
4.3 Linear and switching power supply: Main configurations (Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost, Cuk, SEPIC, quadratic cells), operating modes (CCM and DCM), control techniques ( direct and indirect, fixed and variable frequency, feed-forward compensation), ZCS and ZVS resonant switching, steady-state computing methods, transfer functions definition and computing methods, stability analysis.
4.4 Logic circuits and microcontrollers: Basic logic functions AND, OR; NOT, FLIP-FLOP, microcontroller architecture (PIC 18 family)
A vast activity of electronic design, breadboarding and testing is foreseen.
Basic knowledge of Circuit Theory and Electronics is needed.