Ghost town Laboratory_ Iglesias –Nebida- Masua
In 2016 in Italy there will be 1,650 "ghost town", E. Torsello, Il Sole 24ore, 6.8.2008
Landings, Alfano "59 thousand migrants arrived in Italy since the beginning of year 2015" , Tg24com, 23.06.2015
"Sulcis, IGEA former employees occupy Iglesias gallery and pit mine", il Fatto Quotidiano, 28.11.2014
"The commissioners of UNESCO visited the Geological and Mining Park: Fantastic!", SardiniaPost, 26.07.13
According to the report "Excellencies and ghost town in Italy in the small towns”, released by Confcommercio and Legambiente in 2006 in Italy 1,650 small and medium-sized cities risk becoming ghost town by 2016 due to a phenomenon of desertification called "housing problems".In addition 4,395 municipalities will shed in poor conditions. The reason? Lack of services for people and companies,low birth rates and immigration, inability to attract new capital.Future ghost town constitute one fifth of Italian municipalities, amounting to one-sixth of the national territory.Resides there, at least for now, the 4.2% of the population, with 560 thousand residents over 65,20% more than the average Italian. Little chance of work employment, little social fluidity ..
The Italian ghost towns are part of a European (and American) phenomenon called Shrinking cities. A significant number of cities and regions currently face population decline, economic contraction, or both. The “greying of Europe”, where nearly a third of the population will be 65 or over by 2060, is increasing pressure on social services, urban infrastructure, and the labor supply. The trend is raising new concerns for planning and architectural design. For Central and Eastern European cities, the out-migration of young workers seeking better employment opportunities has made the equation even more difficult. As tax bases shrink, planners and politicians in the EU will need to attract and retain a younger workforce, in part by reforming immigration policy, and make the urban environment accessible for the elderly.
News reports tell us that 59 thousand migrants have arrived in Italy since the beginning of year 2015, both are political refugees, but also men and wemen seeking better economic conditions, more dignified.Today they live in Italy about 4 million foreigners,of which at least half a million illegal immigrants. Of almost 60 million inhabitants, it is 6.7% of the population. Proportionally, Italy is the country in the world that attracts more migrants. A swirling flow, unmanageable by the State, oriented by individual ethnic communities and their leaders,intermediaries between the country of origin and the ”Belpaese country” of reception or transit.Here they reside six major ethnic strains of immigrants - largely composed of young,of which one out of ten born in Italy - from Romania, Albania, Morocco, China, Ukraine and the Philippines.All indicators confirm that given the need for industry, agriculture and services, our future depends on the integration of immigrants.
Italy is also crossed by other flows of people and capital, is in fact the fifth tourist destination for number of visitors. In 2014 were 48 million tourists here have spent 33 billion. One of the most visited regions is Sardinia, where foreign tourists come from Germany, Northern Europe, England and France.In Sardinia, the Iglesiente area with Iglesias city, Monteponi, Nebida, Masua former mines, are part of the geo-mining historical and environmental park of Sardinia, protected since 2001 by UNESCO. In the Iglesiente area, there is the most important Italian mining compound, which comprises the Campidano Plain and the seashore, from Capo Pecora at north to Gonnessa Bay at southwest. Mining activity has shaped the landscape together with the ancient culture of the mining populations by creating an environment of workers' villages like Carbonia and Montevecchio, extraction wells, thousands of kilometers of tunnels, industrial installations and companies like Alcoa, Carbonsulcis, IGEA spa, ancient railways and ports like Porto Flavia. From a geological point of view, it is an extremely important area due to the fact that, other than carboniferous granites and diorites, we can also find metal limestones and dolomites where there are the main lead and zinc veins of the island, already exploited by nuragici, roman and Punic civilizations.
The importance of the extractive industry has determined a positive economic development, but the management not always correct of activities led to the over-exploitation of resources, leaving a heavy legacy in terms of human health and environmental degradation. Production crisis and pollution have led over the past 10 years at the mine closure, and the area called Sulcis-Iglesiente-Guspinese it has been identified and bounded as site reclamation of national interest (SIN).
The close union of several aspects therefore, distinguishes the whole Sulcis Iglesiente area, natural, archaeological and neglected mining settlements as an evidence of unchanged activities during the course of centuries. A UNESCO heritage that today needs new Strategies and Tools of Urbanism, architectural design and urban design for development. Also leaders in others Shrinking cities have attempted different strategies, with varying success, to reinvent their image and their economy around creative industries, a manufacturing renaissance, or the service sector. The strong Iglesiente landscape identity and the definition of a Geological and Mining Park as a natural link between the coastal areas and the inland areas of the island, they are already the devices to create sustainable development and an opportunity for economic and social redemption of the entire territory.
The aim of the course will attempt to answer the following town planning design question: what vision, what tools and strategies we need to adopt for the enhancement of Iglesias-Nebida-Masua area? Which strategies and projects to recover, maintain and enhance the entire set of mining infrastructures for environmental, scientific, educational, cultural and tourist purposes? In the goal of enhancing the area, what can be the design relation between the geo-archaeological remains, clearly defined in its dimension and value, and the shrinking contemporary city? How to develop projects for both habitats and the cultural environment induced by the mining activities as well as the environmental reclamation of the sites? What kind of interventions and connections for the scattered set of archives and museum infrastructures for the safeguard of archaeological, documentary, library, photography and cultural industrial heritage? Should interventions be public or private? How you can involve the different populations and flows of refugees, tourists, residents in the care and management of the heritage? What are the consequences of mass tourism and how can they be controlled or guided with planning and design?
The course will be organized as follows:
1_In the first part “Ghost town in my country”,students will start by comparing Iglesias-Nebida-Masua to other protected site and international case studies, and following with a broad investigation and critical reading of Iglesias-Nebida- Masua and its territory. The aim of this first investigation is to grow on specific knowledge and to build a first cultural and strategic reading of the topic. Students will start with an individual exercise and will be divided in 7 groups by the end of October, before the fieldtrip to Iglesias, to Nebida and Masua ghost towns, the geomineral UNESCO landscapes of the former mines and the sea shore.
2_In the second part students, divided in 7 groups, will progressively develop an operative material with a bottom-up approach, that is by selecting one specific theme and working at multiple scales simultaneously. The production of this stratified system of knowledge will be interpreted and will drive the design phase. This period will end at the mid of November.
3_In the final part students will be asked to develop a site-specific urban planning projects, with a multi-scale and time-based programmatic strategy and a formal proposal. We expect from students to react to the ambitious course program with a project that is capable to interpret the multiple contemporary approaches to urban design, that is to build-up a consistent narrative in which landscape urbanism, open design guidelines, scenarios, cultural and architectural features may clearly emerge. By the beginning of January the class will establish a common date for the final exam in February.
The course will use several disciplinary skills, and in particular:
Urbanism leaded by prof. Isabella Inti
Architectural design leaded by prof. Caterina Padoa Schioppa
Urban design for development leaded by prof. MariaChiara Pastore
Furthermore the course will also use research tools and understanding of the area with photographic inquiry leaded by the photographer Filippo Romano
The course will have opportunities for disciplinary exchange and comparison with the Landscape architecture course of the Master in Urban and Landscape Planning Faculty of Architecture of Alghero, Università degli Studi di Sassari, leaded by Prof. Dipl. Ing Stefan Tischer and prof. AnnaCaterina Piras.
First week, 8-9 Oct. – presentation of the Laboratory, explanation of the first Assignment
Second week, 15-16 Oct. introduction to the Laboratory design issues
Third week, 22-23 Oct. – Laboratory design issues
fourth week, 29 Oct-1st Nov – Field Trip
4. EVALUATION MODE
First part | “Ghost town in my country” = 10
Second part | Investigation and site visit = 5
Third part | town planning project = 10
Third part | questions on the topics of the lectures and 1 book and 1 article (of your choice) = 5
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