Obiettivi e contenuti del corso
The course is aimed to allow the student: a) to know the physical and chemical fundamental principles and the technologies used in biomedical sensors and instrumentation; b) to know the principal methods for sensor conditioning; c) to be able to determine which sensors, transducers and measurement instruments are more suitable for a given biomedical application; d) to evaluate the characteristics and technical features of a sensor or an instrument; e) to be able to implement a simple biomedical measurement device including a sensor, a front-end circuit, an interface with a PC, a software for virtual instrumentation.
Descrizione degli argomenti trattati
Sensors and Instrumentation technologies.Biomedical sensors: classification. Principles of measurement: photoelectric, termoresistive, termoelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, piezoresistive, magnetic, radiation-induced effects; adsorbance and absorbance of chemical species. Technologies: semiconductors, ceramics, polymeric films, optical fibres. Structures: impedance (resistive and capacitive sensors of light, force, position, acceleration, magnetic field), diode (photodiodes), transistor (MOSFET: GASFET, OGFET, ADFET, SAFET, pressFET, ISFET), self generating (piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electrochemical sensors), optical fibers (step index, graded index, core- e cladding-based sesnors, interferometric sensors). Applications in medicine and biology of electromagnetic, thermic, mechanical, chemical, radiation and optical sensors. Technology of electronic instrumentation. Structure of a measurement system. Interface with the sensor, signal conditioning, A/D conversion.
Clinical Instrumentation. Introduction to biomedical instrumentation. Basic components in biomedical instrumentation. Electrical safety in biomedical equipment. Imaging systems: endoscopy, computed radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance Imaging, Nuclear Medicine (Scintigraphy, PET, SPECT), medical Ultrasonography. Monitoring equipment: Monitors for anaesthesia and critical care medicine. Invasive and noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring (blood pressure, blood flow and volume, cardiac output). Respiratory monitoring (airflow, lung volumes and pressure, gas concentration and transport). Clinical laboratory measurements: spectrometric instruments (absorption, fluorescence, optical emission spectrometry; UV, visible, NIR, IR and Raman spectrometry; NMR; mass spectrometry); separation instruments (chromatography, electrophoresis). Imaging instruments (optical, confocal and atomic force microscopy). Electrochemical instruments (Potentiometry, Voltammetry, Conductimetry).
- Lectures’ slides and various material provided by the teacher.
- Fraden J. Handbook of Modern Sensors: Physics, Designs, and Applications.
- Pallàs-Areny R, Webster JG. Sensors and signal conditioning.
- Harsanyi G, Sensors in biomedical applications: fundamentals, technology and applications.
- Webster J. Medical Instrumentation. Application and design.
Organizzazione del corso
In addition to lectures and practical classes (with numerical exercises), the student will attend a series of laboratory classes and will be asked to develop a practical project. This will be constituted by the implementation of a simple measurement system for the assessment of sensors' characteristics and the measurement of biomedical variables (e.g. potentiometers, strain gauges, thermistors, optical measurements (LED, photodiodes and photoresistors), based on open-source platforms for electronic prototyping (Arduino) and PC interfacing by means of SW for virtual instrumentation (Labview).