Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2013/2014
Scuola Scuola di Architettura e Società
Docente Boeri Stefano , Brunello Michele , Pastore Maria Chiara
Cfu 14.00 Tipo insegnamento Laboratorio

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Nome Sezione Insegnamento
Arc - Urb - Cost (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (1136) ARCHITETTURAE12AZZZZA093380 - TOWN PLANNING DESIGN WORKSHOP

Programma dettagliato e risultati di apprendimento attesi

Title Of the Course: Rule, Model, Device. Notes on the Generative Power of Architecture.


1. The subject

The general subject of the course regards the generative power of architecture. By generative power we intend the capability of architecture to generate new conditions within its background; these effects can be measured by the rules that architecture implies, by the application of a model that the architecture represents, and by the regeneration process that is affected by the background.

The context in architecture is in this case an ontological space (or field), only defined in relation to the "position" of the architectural object. We can therefore mean, using the word "context", a system of contiguous or scattered place, a specific space, a discipline, and one or more fields of the collective memory. Considering the extent and the semantic ambiguity of the two terms, "context" can be considered synonymous with "City"; these two terms are fields of variable size, within which to consider the effects generated by architecture.

Through a series of lectures ex cathedra, a series of conferences regarding the new architecture in Milan and an integrated system of seminars and workshops, the course aims to investigate and compare three recurrent figures of the generative power of architecture. The three figures - that constitute specific ideologies in the relation between architecture and the city - are summed up by the three formulas of the rule, of the model, and of the device.

The first two of these figures come from a famous essay by Francois Choay (The réglé et le modèle, Editions du Seuil, Paris, 1980)

The first figure is that of the Rule. The figure of the rule is evident when the transfer of certain spatial and settling orders shows the generative force of architecture. The rules that architecture embodies and communicates to the context of the city - with its very presence (as a work constructed and / or as a simulacrum) - are capable of generating limited variations and repetitions within the construction of the city and of its parts. Rule is synonymous with procedure, type, and therefore forms the basis of an idea of a democratic and incremental process of building an urban context. Architecture generates rules when, while influencing its context, it accepts a high degree of tolerance in the variations. The relationship between architecture and the city is shown in the form of free interpretation. The reference text for the definition of the figure of the disciplinary rule, according to Francoise Choay is De Re Aedificatoria of Leon Battista Alberti.

The second figure is that of the Model. An architecture becomes a Model when it manages to establish itself as a unique example of spatial type and of settlement, when it is able to generate replicas, repetitions, reinterpretations -more or less faithful copies and more or less successful. An architecture becomes a Model when it is placed at the top of a hierarchy from which other architectures depend, when other spaces are clearly borrowers and dependent to it, both by its operating principles and by its configuration. Model is synonymous with exception, individuality, and leadership. It represents an idea of command, hierarchy, "healing" construction of inhabited space and the city. The relationship between architecture and the city is expressed in the form of utopia. The reference text for the definition of the figure of the Model, according to Francoise Choay is Thomas More's Utopia.

The third figure is that of the Device. Architecture operates as a transformative Device when it does not pretend to establish rules to follow or as an example to be repeated, but rather to establish itself as a unique process of creation of living space. It is unique because it is unrepeatable. Unique because it includes rules and examples from the (wide) context; unique because it shows a high degree of autonomy and indifference to the effects that it determines. An architecture serves as a device when it escapes from any teaching vocation or authoritarianism; it also proves that it is able to embody the surrounding background. The closest idea of society expressed by the Device is that of self-organization. The relationship between architecture and the city is expressed by the analogy. The reference text for the definition of the figure of the Device is S, M, L, XL by Rem Koolhaas.

The course, Workshops and tutorials will have a constant reminder of the performative capacity of these three figures in the transformation of the contemporary architecture. We consider the differences, the possible contamination, and their disciplinary traditions. In particular, the workshop will examine the ways in which these three figures (also intended as ideologies) participate in the construction of a part of the city. And specifically how they affect the notion of "neighbourhood."

2. Lecture

There are 3 ex cathedra courses, each including a series of lectures.

The course of prof. Stefano Boeri will focus on the comparison among the figures of the Rule, the Model and the Device. These three figures will be used to understand the nexus between contemporary architecture and the construction of the city. In parallel to the critical reading of significant texts regarding the three Figures, a series of case studies will be shown in order to understand different ways to articulate the relationship between work and context, between architecture and the city.

The course of Arch. Maria Chiara Pastore, inside the conceptual framework defined by the figures of “Rule, Model and Device”, will focus on the relation between the neighbourhood and the city focusing on the different elements which link, cross or separate the different entities. A series of lectures regarding the history and changes occurring for the formalization of the concepts as well as the analysis of different case studies will occur during the course.

The course of Arch. Michele Brunello will explore some case studies in which specific and innovative urban dynamics coexist with urban spaces characterized by resilience phenomena. It would explore agricultural periurban territories that become part of the city, and spaces characterized by social and economic innovation, evolving the consolidated meaning of agricultural and production spaces. The course would explore cases and projects of urban interventions that are able to understand the contemporary transition of the city to a post-petroleum economy in which concepts as consume, saving, power production and the exchange value between the public and private sphere are changing. The course would explore the relational and spatial dynamics of new aggregated communities supported by the digital world's possibilities. Communities that organize new working spaces, living spaces, production spaces, relational and idle spaces and also political uprising or occupation of areas thanks to the instant communication and the contemporary mobility.

3. The workshop

The workshop will be centred on the spatial and anthropological concept of "neighbourhood." The neighbourhood as geographical, social and historical system, as a minimum unit and as a subsystem of a superior unit (geographically, socially and historically). Neighbourhood as intermediate grade of the urban condition, the threshold between a community and the city. The neighbourhood as a subsystem of the conurbation and as an independent and autonomous entity. The neighbourhood as the context for the variation of one or more rules, as the context for the application of one or more models; as a place where it manifests an architectural device of transformation.

The notion of neighbourhood will be explored in different phases and "campaigns" of research. In a first phase, each student will be expected to apply the concepts discussed in the course and in the laboratory to one or more case studies in his origin territory. In a second phase the students will be involved  -according to specific rules, according to explicit reference models and in analogy with other devices of transformation- in the design of a real neighbourhood / model.

A 1:50 scale model will be carried out of the district / model, whose model-making will involve each student.

Students will be evaluated on the base of the different project submission and the quality of the proposals, the attendance and participation to the classes and seminars.

Note Sulla Modalità di valutazione

Students will be evaluated on the base of the different project submission and the quality of the proposals, the attendance and participation to the classes and seminars.

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaAlberti L.B, De Re Aedificatoria, Editore: Il Polifilo, Anno edizione: 1966
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaAmin A., Thrift N., Cities. Reimagining the urban, Editore: Polity, Anno edizione: 2002
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaAymonino A., Il significato delle città, Editore: Laterza, Anno edizione: 1996
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaBauman Z., Community. Seeking Safety in an Insecure World, Editore: Polity, Anno edizione: 2001
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaBoeri S., L'Anticittà, Editore: Laterza, Anno edizione: 2011
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaChoay F., La Régle et le Modéle: sur la théorie de l'architecture et de l'urbanisme, Editore: Editions du Seuil, Anno edizione: 1980
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaDe Carlo G., Gli spiriti dell'architettura, Editore: Editori Riuniti, Anno edizione: 1992
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaGregotti V., Il territorio dell'architettura, Editore: Feltrinelli, Anno edizione: 1996
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaHannerz U., Exploring the City. Inquiries Towards an Urban Anthropology, Editore: Columbia Univ. Press., Anno edizione: 1961
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaHealey P., Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies. Towards a relational planning for our times., Editore: Routledge, Anno edizione: 2007
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaJacobs J., The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Editore: Random House, Anno edizione: 1961
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaKoolhaas R., S,M,L,XL , Editore: The Monacelli Press, Anno edizione: 1995
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaLynch K., A theory of good city form., Editore: MIT Press, Anno edizione: 1981
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaMore T., Utopia, Editore: Guida, Anno edizione: 2000
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaRossi A., L'architettura della città, Editore: Marsilio, Anno edizione: 1996
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaSassen S., The global city, Editore: Princeton University Press, Anno edizione: 1991
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaSecchi B., Il racconto urbanistico, Editore: Einaudi, Anno edizione: 1983
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaTaylor P., World City Network: A Global Urban Analysis, Editore: Routledge, Anno edizione: 2003

Mix Forme Didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore didattiche
laboratorio di progetto

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese

Note Docente
schedaincarico v. 1.6.5 / 1.6.5
Area Servizi ICT