Ing Ind - Inf (1 liv.)(ord. 270) - MI (363) INGEGNERIA BIOMEDICA

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055495 - BASICS OF CIRCUIT THEORY

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

Electric circuits (also referred to as electric networks) are ubiquitous in technology and essential to modern engineering, from communication and computer systems aimed at processing and transmitting information, to power systems aimed at delivering electric energy to any kind of equipment. The forefront field of biomedical engineering with its multidisciplinary nature does not represent an exception, since biomedical engineers are expected to understand many specialized circuits which allow operation of sensors, instrumentation, actuators, man-machine interfaces, etc. Circuit theory is the fundamental discipline that pervades all these applications. The goal of circuit theory is to make quantitative predictions on the electrical behavior of circuits, exploiting a rigorous mathematical approach. In this respect, the main objective of this course is introducing students to circuit theory, so to develop applied knowledge of circuit analysis, serving also as a foundation course for future specialistic disciplines.

Risultati di apprendimento attesi

Lectures and exercise sessions will allow students to acquire the following competences:

knowledge of the general subjects of classic circuit theory, that is, the laws, theorems and methods of linear circuits (D1);

ability to apply the aforesaid knowledge to analyze the operation of linear circuits (D2):

the solution of resistive circuits

the solution of transients in first-order dynamic circuits with dc sources

the solution of ac steady-state in dynamic circuits (phasor analysis)

understanding specific subjects related to applicative frameworks (D1):

the ideal transformer

the ideal operational amplifier and its main circuit configurations

the frequency response of basic filters

principles of three-phase power-system circuits

constitutive law of non-linear devices: diode, MOSFET transistor

Dublin Descriptor D1: Knowledge and understanding

Dublin Descriptor D2: Applying knowledge and understanding

Argomenti trattati

1-INTRODUCTION TO CIRCUIT THEORY

Electric quantities in circuits: current, voltage, power and energy. Kirchhoff’s Laws of currents and voltages. Tellegen's Theorem and the conservation of energy.

2-LINEAR RESISTIVE CIRCUITS: BASIC CONCEPTS

Constitutive law and properties of linear one-port elements: independent and dependent voltage and current sources, resistor. Series resistors and voltage division. Parallel resistors and current division. Equivalent resistance. Wye-Delta transformations. Source transformations.

3-NODAL ANALYSIS

Reference node and node voltages. Writing the system of node-voltage equations.

4- LINEAR RESISTIVE CIRCUITS: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

Linearity and the Superposition Theorem. Thevenin’s Theorem and Norton’s Theorem.

5- TWO-PORT ELEMENTS

Ideal transformer: constitutive law and properties. Ideal Operational Amplifier (OA): constitutive law and properties. Main OA circuit configurations for signal conditioning: Voltage Follower, Inverting Amplifier, Non-Inverting Amplifier, Summing Amplifier, Difference Amplifier, Comparator, Integrator, Differentiator.

6- CIRCUIT DYNAMICS: TRANSIENT AND DC STEADY STATE

Capacitor and Inductor: constitutive law and properties. First-order circuits: transient and dc steady state. Higher-order circuits (hints).

7-SINUSOIDAL AC STEADY STATE AND THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN

7a) Sinusoids and phasors. Impedance and Admittance. Sinusoidal steady-state analysis in the phasors' domain. Power in sinusoidal steady state: average (active) power, reactive power, complex power.

7b) Frequency response. Network functions of basic filters.

8- POWER-SYSTEM CIRCUITS

Three-phase circuits for the distribution of electric energy in buildings and hospitals. Protection-earth wire and electric safety (hints).

9- NON-LINEAR CIRCUITS

General definitions about non-linear circuits. Diode: constitutive law, applications. Field-effect transistor (MOSFET): constitutive law, application as small-signal amplifier, application as controlled switch.

Prerequisiti

Mathematics:

Essential: complex numbers and their algebra, differential calculus for functions of a real variable. Recommended: linear differential equations.

-Problem #2 (8 points): Transient and dc steady state in a first-order circuit (subject 6)

-Problem #3 (8 points): Circuit in sinusoidal ac steady state (subject 7a)

(Note: a problem may be composed of a number of elemental exercises/tasks)

-Seven questions (7 points), either multiple choice or brief open answer (randomly chosen within subjects 5, 7b, 8, 9)

Total score: 8+8+8+7=31 points

Bibliografia

Charles Alexander, Matthew Sadiku, Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, Seventh Edition (International Student Edition), Editore: McGraw Hill, Anno edizione: 2021, ISBN: 978-1-260-57079-3

Software utilizzato

Nessun software richiesto

Forme didattiche

Tipo Forma Didattica

Ore di attività svolte in aula

(hh:mm)

Ore di studio autonome

(hh:mm)

Lezione

36:00

39:00

Esercitazione

24:00

26:00

Laboratorio Informatico

0:00

0:00

Laboratorio Sperimentale

0:00

0:00

Laboratorio Di Progetto

0:00

0:00

Totale

60:00

65:00

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