Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2023/2024
Scuola Scuola di Architettura Urbanistica Ingegneria delle Costruzioni
Docente Cocchiarella Luigi
Cfu 8.00 Tipo insegnamento Monodisciplinare

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Nome Sezione Insegnamento

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

The course Fundamentals of representation focuses on the knowledge and the understanding of the architectural representation themes, as well as on its historical development, including the relationships with other disciplines and languages of the architecture, therefore it aims at providing the theoretical, methodological, and operational fundamentals of the matter, with reference to the architectural, urban, and territorial space.

The educational goals refer to the technical knowledge and the learning processes required for understanding and configuring the architectural space on the base of the fundamental projective forms, and to investigate the relationships between space, image, metrics, and modelling; by operating on the links between geometrical structures and graphic strategies; by highlighting the role of the projective principles and procedures in generating analogue and digital images and models, as well as in supporting visual perception and optical devices, and their use, either in the survey or in the project.

Overall mission of the course is leading the students to the necessary mastery of the basic principles and procedures of the analogue and digital representation of the space, and their relevant applications in the professional field of an architect.

Risultati di apprendimento attesi

As a learning result, the student is expected to acquire competences and critical awareness about the application of the basic principles and procedures of the analogue and digital representation of the space, to the configurations characterizing the real architecture, and the contexts, at the various scales.

The student becomes so able to apply methods and procedures of the projective geometrical representation: orthogonal projections with shades and shadows, plans, sections, front views; axonometric and perspective, as an educational training to understand and to graphically describe the space by 2D and 3D techniques.

Furthermore, the student is also expected to critically master methods and procedures, and to become able to propose and to develop original descriptions of the architectural space, by graphics and models, according to the architectural themes assigned.

Argomenti trattati

As a basic course, the monographic course of Fundamentals of representation takes place in the first semester of the first year of the Bachelor, providing the theoretical, methodological and operational disciplinary bases, and assuming the architectural, urban and territorial space as the main focus in relation to survey and analysis as well as to the design activity.

The course focuses on the fundamentals of the architectural representation; on the relationships among space, image, measuring, modelling; on the connections between geometrical structures and graphic devices. The course also emphasizes the role of projective principles and methods in generating analogue and digital images and models, as well as in visual perception and optical devices, in relation to their use in the architectural survey and in the architectural design.

Students will train about quality education in a open, inclusive and international educational context, highlighting the links between tradition and digital innovation, as well as taking advantages of interactions with other international univerisies; the topics developed aim at offering knowledge and know how fundations as prerequisites to undertake the educational and professional challenges related to innovation and sustainable development in the field of architectural design and construction, urban and landscape planning, as parts of the large scale environment of our everyday life, to be implemented and preserved for the next generations

KEYWORDS: Quality education, inclusive education, digital/open innovation, cultural/natual heritage, smart cities, sustainable development



The course, including theoretical lectures and applications, is strictly related to the course of representational techniques, starting in the same semester as a part of the architectural design studio, as well as to the architectural design education in general.

Lectures and applications will focus on the following topics and educational stages:


Structural characteristics of architectural images and models. The projective and non-projective graphic forms: early introduction. Using graphic forms by manual drawing, in order to support, as early as possible the architectural design activities.

Applications: photographic images, architectural drawings, cartographies, maquettes, digital models: geometric and graphic analysis. Reproducing images by manual drawing, by tracing and by imitation. Generating qualitative schemes and diagrams, outlining additional projections by manual drawing. Observing shades and shadows from life and from images and pictures. Graphic outline of the human silhouettes.


Drawing from life, early introduction. Real architectural configurations: observation, recognition and classification. Spatial dimensions and graphic scaled ratios: visual estimation. Generating topological and projective graphic schemes from life, by manual drawing. Metrical survey and graphic reconstruction: basic methods and techniques. Comparing analogue and digital technical graphic representation. 

Applications: outlining true architectural shapes by sketches and simple schemes, appropriately combining various representational forms. Planning the survey campaign: deciding the set of pictures and drawings supporting the survey activities. Drawing schematic plans, elevations and front views of the whole space and of significant details, together with synthetic axonometric and perspective outlines. Recording metrical data: targeting and aligning points, detecting levels and metrical networks, plumbs taking. Graphic reconstructions by analogue and digital technical drawing.


Deepening principles, and thorough examination of methods and procedures of the projective representation. Orthogonal and topographic projections: spatial setup and graphic reference system; representing shapes, shades and shadows; plan views, side and front views; combining front and section; graphic development. Axonometric: spatial setup, classification, graphic reference systems; representing shapes, shades and shadows; view, cut section, exploded view. Perspective: spatial setup, classification, graphic reference systems; view, cut section, exploded view. Homological relationships: early introduction. Nexus with the digital graphics envoronment.

Applications: representation of architectural spaces characterized by plane and curved surfaces. Descriptive program: quick planning of the set of visualizations by manual sketches; transcription of the planned views by traditional technical drawing, Training on 3D digital graphics visualizations.


Deepening homological relationships. Solving metrical problems and true-to-shape finding by means of homology. Intersecting configurations. Shades and shadows: intersection, homology. Solving simple topographic problems. Inverse perspective and photogrammetry: outline. Solving metrical and formal problems. Outline on digital applications: Boolean operations, intersections, metrical data and true-to-shape finding. Getting metrical data from analogue and digital graphics. Setting metrical data for physical model making.

Applications: intersection between spatial configurations characterized by plane and curved surfaces. True-to-shape finding of the intersection outlines. Constructive program: quick planning of the set of constructions by manual sketches; transcription of the planned constructions by traditional technical drawing, with pencil, ruler and compass on transparent paper. Detecting projective structures on photographic images. Assembling and disassembling spatial models by digital systems. Recording and setting metrical data, preparing graphic templates for the physical model making. 


Mastering graphic representation. Integrating analogue, digital and physical codes of representation. Combining representational forms. Managing views, lights, shades, shadows, models, maquettes, animations, movies, pictures. Setting up representational materials according to the topic and to the stages of the workflow. Setup and the use of analogue and digital archives: basic outlines. Experiencing the comparison between drawing and the digital modelling approach.

Applications: integrating materials and work: sketches, drawings, models, maquettes. Work storage, digital recording and delivery.

Obiettivi di sviluppo sostenibile - SDGs
Questo insegnamento contribuisce al raggiungimento dei seguenti Obiettivi di Sviluppo Sostenibile dell'Agenda ONU 2030:


Modalità di valutazione

The final evaluation will be individual, it will take place at the end of the semester and will be based on an oral test concerning the theoretical contents and on the examination of the work.

The evaluation aims to check the achievements of the following educational goals:

_ oral test: knowledge and understanding; making judgements; communication skills 

_ class work evaluation: applying knowledge and understanding; making judgements; learning skills; communication skills

Since students will be required to work in groups on specific tasks (i.e. measurements, model making, photography, workflow planning) the aptitude and the ability to work in team will be tested as well.

A digital copy of the work, including rough and fair copy of notes from lectures, drawings, models, animations, maquettes, pictures and movies, is to be delivered to the teacher before the exam, according to class instructions.

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaR. Yee, Architectural Drawing. A visual compendium of types and methods, Editore: John Wiley & Sons, Anno edizione: 2007
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaL. Cocchiarella, C. Casonato (a cura di), Seminario dei Laboratori di Rappresentazione, Editore: Maggioli, Anno edizione: 2012
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaC.B. Mills, Designing with Models. A Studio guide to Making and Using Architectural Design Models, Editore: John Wiley & Sons, Anno edizione: 2005
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaG. Caglioti, T. Tchouvileva, L. Cocchiarella, Odi et Amo: dalle ambiguità percettive al pensiero quantistico, Editore: Mimesis, Anno edizione: 2020, ISBN: 9788857566009 https://www.youyube.com/watch?v=MTiikGxlZxl
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaI.Medola, M.Petri, Free hand design. products, toys, jewels, vehicles, furniture..., Editore: Alinea, Anno edizione: 2006
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaM.Langford, Basic Photography, Editore: Focal Press, Anno edizione: 2000
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaM. Hemmerling, A. Tiggemann, Digital Design Manual, Editore: DOM Publisher, Anno edizione: 2011
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaHemmerling M., Graf M., Case Study Houses - Digitally Remastered, Editore: Spurbuchverlag, Anno edizione: 2016
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaFrank Melendez, Drawing from the Model. Fundamentals of Digital Drawing, 3D Modelling, and Visual Programming in Architectural Design, Editore: Wiley & Sons, Anno edizione: 2019, ISBN: 978-1-119-11562-5
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaSeries of 5 MOOCs https://www.pok.polimi.it/courses?search_query=MODARCH101,MODARCH102,MODARCH103,MODARCH104,MODARCH105

Software utilizzato
Software Info e download Virtual desktop
Ambiente virtuale fruibile dal proprio portatile dove vengono messi a disposizione i software specifici per all¿attività didattica
PC studente
Indica se è possibile l'installazione su PC personale dello studente
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Altri corsi
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ADOBE Illustrator CC NO SI
ADOBE Photoshop CC NO SI
Grasshopper Vedi sito produttore NO SI
MCNEEL Rhinoceros 7 NO SI

Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
Ore di studio autonome
Laboratorio Informatico
Laboratorio Sperimentale
Laboratorio Di Progetto
Totale 80:00 120:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese

Note Docente
schedaincarico v. 1.8.3 / 1.8.3
Area Servizi ICT