Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - CR (504) AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

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057221 - CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR SMART AGRICULTURE

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

The aim of this course is to introduce the student to the fundamental aspects of logic control systems, and to the advanced architectures of continuously modulated control systems, with particular attention to their applications to smart agriculture. Furthermore, technological issues related to the implementation of these control systems are discussed as well. At the end of the course, case studies are presented to show the application of continuously modulated and logic control systems to different fields of agriculture automation, including farming and livestock management.

Risultati di apprendimento attesi

After the course, the student should be able to:

design and tune continuously modulated control systems for single-input single-output plants;

design and tune continuously modulated control systems for simple multi-input multi-output plants;

design logic control systems;

tune industrial regulators;

design advanced control architectures based on industrial regulators;

manage technological issues related to the implementation of a control system, e.g., select the proper sensors and actuators, discretise and implement the controller in a real time system.

Argomenti trattati

The course is structured in five modules. Among them, two core modules act as the foundations of the course, developing students’ understanding of key aspects of continuously modulated and logic control systems. A further module builds students’ understanding on how control systems fit into the context of agriculture automation.

Module 1: Introduction The role of control in smart agriculture and precision farming. Introduction to continuously modulated and logic control systems. Examples of applications of continuously modulated and logic control systems to farming and livestock management. Fundamentals of hardware, software and control architectures.

Module 2: Logic control systems Discrete event systems. Petri nets: graphical and algebraic representations, fundamental mathematical properties, structural analysis, P-invariants and T-invariants, hierarchical Petri nets. Using Petri nets to design control systems for discrete event systems: direct and indirect method. Fundamentals of PLC programming, IEC61131 standard and SFC language.

Module 3: Modulated control systems A review on frequency domain control system design tools. Industrial regulators: tuning and auto-tuning techniques, implementation issues, two-degree-of-freedom controllers. Cascaded-control and feed-forward control actions. Fundamentals of advanced control structures and multivariable control.

Module 4: Sensors and actuators Sensors and actuators properties: static (sensitivity, resolution, linearity, drift, etc.) and dynamic (delay time, settling time, rise time, etc.) properties. Sensor/actuator selection in a control system. Examples of sensors and actuators for farming and livestock management.

Module 5: Case studies Examples of application of continuously modulated control systems to smart agriculture and precision farming. Examples of application of logic control systems to livestock management.

The theoretical part is combined by:

numerical exercises on modulated control system analysis and design, and logic control system modelling, analysis and desgin.;

software laboratories on implementation and simulation of logic control systems;

experimental laboratories on implementation and validation of logic and modulated control systems, using simple embedded control boards and experimental plants.

Logic and modulated control system design tools introduced in this course are the enabling design methodologies for any control system in the field of precision farming.

Prerequisiti

Students attending this course are expected to know the basics of automatic control, computer science and electrical engineering.

Modalità di valutazione

For students attending lectures, exercises, and laboratories in person, the final assessment can be: a) only a mandatory written exam, consisting of both numerical exercises and theoretical questions; b) a mandatory written exam, consisting of both numerical exercises and theoretical questions, and a practical project, that each student can partially develop during laboratories and partially at home (project description and corresponding submission rules are introduced during laboratories). For case (a), the grade includes only the marks from the written exam, and can be up to 28. For case (b), the grade includes the marks from the written exam (up to 28) and the marks from the practical project (up to 4 additional points). In order to pass the exam, however, the marks taken in the written exam should be greater or equal to 18. In this case the grade can be up to 30 cum laude. Furthermore, during the course 4 problems are assigned, on logic and modulated control. Only students attending lectures, exercises, and laboratories in person can propose a solution to these problems. For each problem, to the students proposing a correct solution a bonus mark is assigned. These bonus marks are then added to the marks of the written exam, either in case (a) or (b), but again to pass the exam the marks taken in the written exam should be greater or equal to 18.

For students not attending lectures, exercises, and laboratories in person, the final assessment can be: a) only a mandatory written exam, consisting of both numerical exercises and theoretical questions; b) a mandatory written exam, consisting of both numerical exercises and theoretical questions, and a practical project, that each student develops at home (project description and corresponding submission rules should be asked by email to the teacher in due time). For case (a), the grade includes only the marks from the written exam, and can be up to 28. For case (b), the grade includes the marks from the written exam (up to 28) and the marks from the practical project (up to 4 additional points). In order to pass the exam, however, the marks taken in the written exam should be greater or equal to 18. In this case the grade can be up to 30 cum laude.

In the written exam the student should be able to:

analyse fundamental properties of Petri nets;

design and tune continuously modulated and logic control systems;

design advanced control architectures based on industrial regulators;

solve simple design problems for multi-input multi-output systems;

correctly manage technological issues related to the implementation of a control system.

In the practical project the student should be able to:

implement and simulate a logic controller using a suitable software, like OpenPLC;

implement a modulated controller on an embedded platform, like Arduino;

validate a logic controller or a modulated controller on simple experimental plants.

Bibliografia

P. Bolzern, R. Scattolini, N. Schiavoni, Fondamenti di controlli automatici, Editore: McGraw-Hill Italia, Anno edizione: 2015, ISBN: 9788838668821
Gene F. Franklin, J. Da Powell, Abbas Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Editore: Pearson, Anno edizione: 2015, ISBN: 9780133496598
Norman S. Nise, Control Systems Engineering, Editore: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., ISBN: 9780470917695
Bonfatti, Monari, Sampieri, IEC 1131-3 Programming Methodology, Editore: CJ International
C. Bonivento, L. Gentili, A. Paoli, Sistemi di automazione industriale - Architetture e controllo, Editore: McGraw-Hill Italia, Anno edizione: 2011, ISBN: 8838664404
G. Magnani, G. Ferretti, P. Rocco, Tecnologie dei sistemi di controllo, Editore: McGraw-Hill Italia, Anno edizione: 2007, ISBN: 9788838663215

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