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Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2022/2023
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Insegnamento 052368 - CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL AND MOBILE ROBOTS
Docente Bascetta Luca , Rocco Paolo
Cfu 10.00 Tipo insegnamento Corso Integrato

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (473) AUTOMATION AND CONTROL ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA DELL'AUTOMAZIONE*AZZZZ052368 - CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL AND MOBILE ROBOTS
090914 - CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS
052366 - CONTROL OF MOBILE ROBOTS
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (476) ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA ELETTRONICA*AZZZZ090914 - CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (481) COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA INFORMATICA*AZZZZ090914 - CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS
052366 - CONTROL OF MOBILE ROBOTS
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (486) ENGINEERING PHYSICS - INGEGNERIA FISICA*AZZZZ090914 - CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

This course is the integration of two modules, on Control of industrial robots and on Control of mobile robots, which will be run in parallel. The goal of the course is fully aligned with the overall goals of the Automation and Control Engineering Program, while being an excellent complement for students enrolled in other Programs (Computer Science and Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Engineering Physics, and others).

 

As for industrial robotics, the goal is to present current and advanced methodologies for the control of robotic manipulators. The course covers selected topics ranging from kinematic and dynamic modelling of an industrial robot, to advanced motion planning and control, to control of the interaction of the robot with the environment. A mix of theoretical and industrially relevant topics characterizes the course, where extensive use of software for simulation and offline programming of robots will be made.

 

As for mobile robotics, the goal is to to introduce the student to the fundamental aspects of modeling and simulation, planning and control, for mobile robots. The course covers the main aspects of mobile robotics, making reference to indoor, outdoor and off-road environments. Classical and advanced planning and control techniques are introduced. At the end of the course, a case study is presented to show the application of planning and control methodologies to a realistic problem, emphasizing the role of mobile robotics in different fields of automation.

 


Risultati di apprendimento attesi

The expected learning outcomes of the course belong to the technological and design area of the expected learning outcomes of the Program.

 

Specifically, at the end of the course, the student:

 

- understands the role of industrial robots in the factory, why and where they should be used in the production systems;

- uses mathematics to describe the motion of a robot, in terms of both kinematics and dynamics;

- plans a suitable motion for the robot both in free environment and in presence of obstacles;

- tunes an industrial motion control system and understand the rationale and potentialities of advanced nonlinear model based control strategies;

- manages the control of the interaction of the robot with the environment, either with force or with vision sensors;

- understands and masters the new trends in industrial robotics, like collaborative robotics;

- masters software programs to simulate and to offline program the robots.

- describes and explains how the kinematic and dynamic behaviour of a mobile robot can be represented using a mathematical model;

- describes and explains how a path/trajectory planning problem for a mobile robot can be solved, possibly considering the robot model and a multi-robot scenario;

- describes and explains how a regulation or a trajectory tracking control system for a mobile robot can be designed, using linear and nonlinear control techniques;

- develops a kinematic or a dynamic model of a mobile robot, using suitable simulation tools;

- designs the navigation system, i.e., a planning and a control algorithms, for a mobile robot.

 


Argomenti trattati

Control of industrial robots

 

1. Introduction

Industrial robots: basic concepts and examples.

Market of industrial robotics.

Trends in industrial robotics.

 

2. Advanced robot kinematics

Review of direct, inverse and differential kinematics.

Kinematic calibration.

Kinematics of redundant manipulators: methods for redundancy resolution.


3. Robot dynamics

Dynamic models of robot manipulators.

Euler-Lagrange and Newton-Euler formulations: main properties.

Identification of dynamic parameters.

Direct and inverse dynamics.


4. Advanced motion planning

Review of motion generation in joint space and in operational space.

Interpolation of points (splines).

Kinematic and dynamic scaling of trajectories.

Path planning with obstacle avoidance.


5. Control of robot manipulators

Review of independent joint control methods.

Centralized model-based controllers: computed torque feedforward control, PD control with gravity compensation, inverse dynamics control, robust and adaptive control.

Operational space control.


6. Interaction with the environment

Force sensors.

Impedance and admittance control.

Hybrid position/force control.


7. Control with vision sensors

Image processing.

Camera calibration.

Image-based and position-based control systems.

Interaction matrix and image Jacobian.


8. Collaborative robotics

Human-robot interaction.

Safety standards.

Collaborative robots (cobots): advantages and examples of use.


Some of the practice sessions will make use of computer simulation tools and of commercial tools for robot offline programming.

 

Control of mobile robots

 

1. Introduction
Applications of mobile robots in indoor, outdoor and off-road scenarios
Ground and aerial mobile manipulation
Classical problems of mobile robotics
Fundamentals of hardware, software and control architectures

 

2. Kinematics of mobile robots

Kinematic configurations for indoor, outdoor, and off-road mobile robot

Characterisation of kinematic constraints: holonomic and nonholonomic configurations

Using kinematic constraints to derive a kinematic model

Kinematic models of mobile robots

A system theory interpretation of holonomy and nonholonomy

 

3. Dynamics of mobile robots

Fundamentals of dynamic modeling for mobile robotics

Fundamentals of wheel-ground interaction modeling for indoor, outdoor, and off-road applications

Fundamentals of mobile robot multi-body simulation

 

4. Path/trajectory planning

Planning and control, a global and local perspective

Fundamentals of search based, sampling based, and model based planners

Planning in Cartesian and configuration space with sampling based techniques

Introducing robot kinodynamic and actuation constraints in the planning problem

 

5. Trajectory tracking control

Control of omnidirectional mobile robots

A canonical model for nonholonomic mobile robots

Exact linearization and flatness form of classical mobile robot models

Trajectory tracking control based on canonical model and exact linearization

Fundamentals of odometric localization

 

6. ROS for mobile robot modelling, planning and control

Fundamentals of ROS programming: nodes, messages and topics, services, ROS master, parameters and parameter server, stacks and packages

A mobile robot simulator using ROS and Odeint

A mobile robot trajectory tracking controller using ROS

 

7. Case study
Examples of application of modelling, planning and control techniques to case studies in different application domains


Obiettivi di sviluppo sostenibile - SDGs
Questo insegnamento contribuisce al raggiungimento dei seguenti Obiettivi di Sviluppo Sostenibile dell'Agenda ONU 2030:
  • SDG2 - ZERO HUNGER
  • SDG8 - DECENT WORK AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
  • SDG11 - SUSTAINABLE CITIES AND COMMUNITIES

The topic "Collaborative robotics" addresses the SDG8, in particular discussing how robots can improve working conditions.
Three hours of lectures will be devoted to this topic.


The topic "Case study" addresses the SDG2 and SDG11, in particular discussing how tools for mobile robot modelling, and design of planning an control algorithms can be used to develop applications in the fields of agricultural robotics (SDG2) and autonomous personal mobility devices (SDG11).
Four hours of lectures will be devoted to these topics


Prerequisiti

Students attending this course are expected to know basics of modelling of mechanical systems and of automatic control.


Modalità di valutazione

The final assessment will include a written exam, consisting of both numerical exercises and theoretical questions.

The exam paper will be an integrated version of those of the two modules, to be covered in a single exam call. Half of the grade will be related to the part on industrial robotics, the second half to the part on mobile robotics.

 

In the written exam the student should be able to:

 

- compute the dynamic model of simple two degrees of freedom robots;

- discuss the properties of a kinematically redundant robot;

- compute or rescale a trajectory in joint space or in the operational space;

- discuss the main properties of centralized model-based controllers and solve simple numerical related design problems;

- discuss the main properties of the control with force and vision sensors and solve simple numerical related design problems;

- write the kinematic model of a mobile robot, including holonomic and nonholonomic configurations;

- write the dynamic model of a mobile robot, including wheel-ground interaction;

- describe and explain basic concepts and problems within path/trajectory planning, such as Cartesian/configuration space sampling based planning, kinodynamic planning, multi-robot planning;

- describe and explain basic concepts and problems within mobile robot trajectory tracking, such as linear and nonlinear trajectory tracking control, exact linearization, etc.;

- design simple feedback control laws for trajectory tracking of mobile robots;

- give examples on applications of mobile robots in different application domains.

 

For the part on industrial robotics, a grade up to 16 will be assigned based on this written exam.

 

For the part on mobile robotics, the following further rules apply:

 

For students attending lectures, exercises, and laboratories in person, the final assessment can be:
a) only the mandatory written exam described above;
b) the mandatory written exam and a practical project, that each student can partially develop during laboratories and partially at home (project description and corresponding submission rules are introduced during laboratories).
For case (a), the grade of the part of mobile robotics includes only the marks from the written exam, and can be up to 14.
For case (b), the grade of the part of mobile robotics includes the marks from the written exam (up to 14) and the marks from the practical project (up to 2 additional points). In order to pass the exam, however, the marks taken in the written exam, for the part of mobile robotics, should be greater or equal to 9. In this case the grade for the part of mobile robotics can be up to 16.
Furthermore, during the course 4 problems are assigned, one for each of the main chapters (kinematics, dynamics, planning, control). Only students attending lectures, exercises, and laboratories in person can propose a solution to these problems. For each problem, to the students proposing a correct solution a bonus mark is assigned. These bonus marks are then added to the marks of the written exam, either in case (a) or (b), but again to pass the exam the marks taken in the written exam for the part of mobile robotics should be greater or equal to 9.

 

For students not attending lectures, exercises, and laboratories in person, the final assessment can be:
a) only the mandatory written exam described above;
b) the mandatory written exam and a practical project, that each student develops at home (project description and corresponding submission rules should be asked by email to the teacher in due time).
For case (a), the grade of the part of mobile robotics includes only the marks from the written exam, and can be up to 14.
For case (b), the grade of the part of mobile robotics includes the marks from the written exam (up to 14) and the marks from the practical project (up to 2 additional points). In order to pass the exam, however, the marks taken in the written exam, for the part of mobile robotics, should be greater or equal to 9. In this case the grade for the part of mobile robotics can be up to 16.

 

In the practical project the student should be able to:
- implement a kinematic model of a mobile robot as a simple ROS node;
- implement a dynamic model of a mobile robot as a simple ROS node;
- planning a path or a trajectory using a Matlab implementation or RRT/RRT*;
- implement a trajectory tracking controller for a mobile robot as a simple ROS node;
- simulate a simple planning and control problem for a mobile robot using the previous tools.


Bibliografia
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaB. Siciliano, L. Sciavicco, L. Villani, G. Oriolo, Robotics: Modelling, Planning and Control, 3rd Ed., Editore: Springer, Anno edizione: 2009, ISBN: 9781846286414 http://www.springer.com/engineering/robotics/book/978-1-84628-641-4
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaB. Siciliano, L. Sciavicco, L. Villani, G. Oriolo, Robotica: modellistica, pianificazione e controllo, 3a Ed., Editore: McGraw-Hill Italia, Anno edizione: 2008, ISBN: 9788838663222 http://www.catalogo.mcgraw-hill.it/catLibro.asp?item_id=2317
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaG. Magnani, G. Ferretti, P. Rocco, Tecnologie dei sistemi di controllo, 2a Ed., Editore: McGraw-Hill Italia, Anno edizione: 2007, ISBN: 9788838672750 http://www.catalogo.mcgraw-hill.it/catLibro.asp?item_id=2141
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaPeter Corke, Robotics, Vision and Control: Fundamental Algorithms in MATLAB, Editore: Springer, Anno edizione: 2011, ISBN: 9783642201431 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-20144-8
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaKevin M. Lynch and Frank C. Park, Modern Robotics: Mechanics, Planning, and Control, Editore: Cambridge University Press, Anno edizione: 2017, ISBN: 9781107156302 http://hades.mech.northwestern.edu/index.php/Modern_Robotics

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Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
(hh:mm)
Ore di studio autonome
(hh:mm)
Lezione
64:00
96:00
Esercitazione
12:00
18:00
Laboratorio Informatico
24:00
36:00
Laboratorio Sperimentale
0:00
0:00
Laboratorio Di Progetto
0:00
0:00
Totale 100:00 150:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese
schedaincarico v. 1.7.2 / 1.7.2
Area Servizi ICT
03/10/2022