Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2021/2022
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Insegnamento 095839 - ENERGY SYSTEMS LM
Docente Campanari Stefano
Cfu 7.00 Tipo insegnamento Monodisciplinare

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

The course aims at explaining the various technologies available in energy conversion systems for the production of electricity and heat from conventional and renewable sources, discussing their design, performance and working conditions, with a particular focus on the optimal use of energy sources and the control of pollutant emissions.   

Risultati di apprendimento attesi

After completing the course students are expected to acquire knowledge and understanding in:

  1. Applied thermodynamics (second law analysis) and energy conversion processes.
  2. main tools to analyze and design different types of energy conversion systems (i.e., mass and energy balance equations, exergy losses, economic analysis, fundamentals of combustion processes, recommended design and operational rules)
  3. available technologies (materials, equipment features) and the design/operating principles of conventional energy conversion systems such as combustion devices, steam cycles, gas cycles, combined cycles.

Students are expected to develop the capability of applying the above described knowledge to: -

  1. Develop models of the main equipment units and conversion processes of energy systems
  2. Perform energy/economic analysis of of conventional and renewable energy conversion systems for the production of electricity and/or heat r (i.e., writing and solving mass, energy and exergy balance equations, evaluate the key performance indexes, assess the flue gas composition, evaluate possible design and operational issues)
  3. Make judgements on their techno-economic feasibility and performance.

Argomenti trattati

The course is organized in several modules which cover the different topics whose study offer the students a complete knowledge about the design and operation of conventional and advanced power plants:

Energy scenario: overview of world energy demand, production, expected evolution. Economic aspects: basic approach to evaluate the cost of electricity. Comparative analysis of most relevant fossil fuel-based and renewable-source-based power plants.

Fuels and combustion processes, environmental impact.  Stoichiometry and energy balances for combustion reactions, applications to common fuels. Formation enthalpy and definition of heating value. Adiabatic flame temperature. Pre-mixed and diffusion flames. Formation mechanisms of the major pollutant species during combustion, control strategies to reduce the pollutant formation, after-treatment systems for emission abatement. Emission limits. CO2 emissions and green-house effect, strategies for CO2 emission reduction.

First and Second law analysis. Entropy production. Definitions of exergy and reversible work. Second law thermodynamic efficiency. Second law analysis of energy systems: irreversible processes in fluid machines, heat exchangers and chemical reactions. Application to power-plants cycles.

Steam cycles. Thermodynamic and technical characteristics of Rankine cycles. Regeneration and re-heating. Criteria for the optimization of operating parameters. Steam generators: architecture, configurations and technological aspects, heat transfer issues, losses and efficiency. 

Gas turbines and combined cycles. Thermo-dynamics of the ideal and actual Brayton cycle. Blade cooling techniques. Influence on performances of the major design parameters. Industrial and aeronautical applications. Gas-steam combined cycles: plant configurations, recovery boiler configuration, evaporation pressures. Effects of ambient conditions and partial load control of gas turbines and combined cycles. 

Renewable energy. Review of renewable sources for heat and electricity production. Introduction and main features of solar thermal, photovoltaic, CSP, geothermal, hydro and wind power systems.

Nuclear energy. Fundamental of nuclear power and fission reactor processes. Steam cycles for nuclear reactors.

Cogeneration of heat and electricity, trigeneration. Thermodynamic aspects of cogeneration, energetic and environmental advantages. Performance indexes. Industrial and civil applications on the basis of steam turbines, gas turbines, combined cycles and internal combustion engines. District heating applications. Trigeneration: advantages and applications. Review of refrigeration machines, introduction to absorption machines; combination of cogeneration units with compression or absorption cycles.


The course is wide in its topics and there is no single book that can be suggested. Several books cover the topics of the course and are suggested for a more in-depth study of single topics, although not necessary to pass the exam and their lists is given in the bibliography.

Lecture notes are provided on the beep portal and must be studied to prepare the exam.






Notions of Applied Thermodynamics, Chemistry and Fluid Machines of the first level degree are required.

In order to proficiently understand the topics of the course, the student should have a solid knowledge of the following topics taught in the bachelor level:

- Thermodynamics, thermodynamic properties of ideal gases and water (internal energy, enthalpy, entropy and their fundamental relationships), thermodynamic principles, main reversible/real thermodynamic processes (isothermal compression/expansion, adiabatic transformations, etc), basic thermodynamic cycles [1]

- Basic principles and equations of heat transfer phenomena (conduction, convection, radiation)

- Fundamentals of fluid-mechanics (Bernoulli equation, Darcy law, hydraulics and compressible flows)

- Fundamentals of turbomachines (operating principles of turbines and compressors/pumps), isentropic efficiency of turbomachines, nondimensional analysis of fluid machines [2]

[1] H. Struchtrup: Thermodynamics and Energy Conversion – chapters 1-9: http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-662-43715-5/page/1

[2] S.L. Dixon and C.A. Hall: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery (Sixth Edition) – chapters 1-2: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9781856177931 

Modalità di valutazione

The exam consists of a written examination divided into two parts. The first part consists of two numerical problems focused on application skills, the second part of two open, theoretical questions, focused on knowledge and comprehension. Consulting books or lecture notes is allowed for the first part (numerical problems) but not for the second. One of the two theoretical questions may refer to the topics covered in the exercise lessons.

The student during the examination must demonstrate:

  • to have the abilty to solve sample numerical problems related to the course topics (e.g. through mass and energy balances of energy systems and components)
  • to have the ability to organize the knowledge of the different topics of the course and the interrelations existing between them;
  • to have the capacity for critical reasoning on the theoretical concepts that led to the definition of the different technological solutions which have been studied;
  • to describe each topic with good technical language properties and adequate synthesis and linearity.

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaPaul Breeze, Power Generation Technologies, Editore: Elsevier
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaA. Bejan, Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, Editore: McGraw-Hill
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaM.M. El-Wail, Powerplant Technology , Editore: McGraw-Hill
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaGiancarlo Ferrari, Internal combustion Engines, Editore: Scocietà editrice Esculapio
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaR. Kehlhofer, F. Hannemann, F. Stirnimann, B. Rukes, Combined Cycle Gas & Steam Turbine Power Plants, 3rd ed, Editore: PennWell, Anno edizione: 2009
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaH. Spliethoff, Power Generation from Solid Fuels, Editore: Springer, Anno edizione: 2010

Software utilizzato
Nessun software richiesto

Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
Ore di studio autonome
Laboratorio Informatico
Laboratorio Sperimentale
Laboratorio Di Progetto
Totale 70:00 105:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese
schedaincarico v. 1.8.2 / 1.8.2
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