Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2021/2022
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Insegnamento 052484 - RF SYSTEMS
Docente Macchiarella Giuseppe
Cfu 10.00 Tipo insegnamento Monodisciplinare
Didattica innovativa L'insegnamento prevede  1.0  CFU erogati con Didattica Innovativa come segue:
  • Blended Learning & Flipped Classroom

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

The aim of the teaching is to present the student with the methodologies for modeling, analysis and design of the radio front-end of a communication system, with reference to its main macro elements (subsystems).  In addition, the teaching provides the students with the tools for understanding the technologies related to devices and circuits operating at microwave frequencies. Each topic related to modelling methodologies is treated theoretically and from the application point of view.

To stimulate the students involvement, the teaching includes 1 credits of innovative didactic (Blended learning & flipped classroom) 

Risultati di apprendimento attesi

1) Knowledge and Understanding

Students will learn how to:
- Define mathematical models for the analysis the RF front-end of a microwave transceiver
- Define mathematical models for the analysis the sub-systems composing the RF front-end
- Analyze complex technologies related to circuit and devices used in the sub-systems
- Identify system components and their relations

2) Applying knowledge and Understanding

Students will be able to:
- Dimension the RF radio front-end given the quality requirements of the received/transmitted signal
- Evaluate the performance of the RF front-end for different type of signals
- Apply the mathematical models learned

3) Making judgements

Students will be able to:
- Understand the fundamental tradeoff that govern the design of a modern RF radio front-end
- Identify how the fundamental system limitations impact the design of the RF system
- Recognize the design space and its degrees of freedom enabled by new technologies at microwave frequencies

Argomenti trattati

Specific topics (1st part):

  • Introduction to microwave communication systems. Fundamentals of frequency conversion: the super heterodyne radio receiver. Block diagram of the RF front-end in receivers and transmitters. Basic blocks: Antenna, Amplifier (low noise and power), Mixer, Local Oscillator. Recalls on signals in communication systems: carrier and complex (baseband) modulation.
  • Introduction to antennas: guided and radiated electromagnetic waves. System aspects of antennas. Fundamental parameters: directivity, radiation pattern, gain, effective area, efficiency, radiation impedance.
  • The radio link: Friis equation (link budget)
  • Noise in RF front-end. Definition of the noise temperature. Noise in frequency conversion (SSB and DSB). Evaluation of the equivalent noise temperature of the receiver. Comparison with the direct conversion receiver. Noise generated at antenna output.
  • Linear and non-linear distortion: definitions and characterization. Transfer function: no- distortion condition for amplitude and group delay. Weak non-linearity in 2-port networks: 1dB compression point and 3th order intercept point.

Specific topics (2nd part):

  • Matrix characterization of n-port networks. Classical Z and Y matrices and limits of their use in high frequency circuits. Definition of power waves. Scattering matrix: definitions and properties.
  • Introduction to microwave circuits. Main differences with lumped-element circuits. Conventional voltage and currents. Interconnections and their effects. Discontinuities: meaning and      representation. Analysis with CAD techniques.
  • Impedance matching: basic concepts (matching and maximum power transfer). Matching with lumped elements (L network). Single stub and double stub tuners.
  • Coupled transmission lines: analysis with the conventional lumped model; even and odd mode parameters. Directional couplers and combiners.
  • Introduction to the design of narrow band microwave amplifiers. Maximization of transducer gain and stability issues. Evaluation of optimum loads with the Smith Chart. CAD techniques      for non-linear analysis of amplifiers: the Harmonic Balance method.
  • Microwave Oscillators: topological configuration and evaluation of optimum load with the Smith Chart. The dielectric oscillators: scheme and dimensioning criteria.
  • Overview of semiconductor active devices at microwave frequencies. Basics on fabrication technologies of RF and microwave circuits

 Blended Learning & Flipped Classroom

  • Techniques for improving linearity in RF Transmitter (Pre-distortion, Envelope Tracking, Feed-Forward)
  • Computation techniques: system simulation with commercial software
  • Figure of merits of the complete RF front-end.


Students are required to know the principles of electrical networks. They are also expected to have a basic knowledge of guided propagation of signals (transmission lines).

Modalità di valutazione

The assessment is based either on a written exam at the end of the course or through two "in itinere" tests (one mid-term test on the first part of the program and one test at the end of the course on the second part of the program). For the students passing "in itinere" tests (minimum grade 15/30), the final grade is the average of the points achieved in each test. Those who do not pass "in itinere" tests (average grade < 18/30) must take the entire regular exam. For students who have passed only one of the "in itinere" tests, the mark obtained in the regular exam will be increased up to a maximum of 3 points (depending on the grade of "in itinere" test passed).

The first exam after the end of the course is reserved for the second "in itinere" test. 

The written tests (both regular exam and "in itinere" tests) are based on numerical exercises and problems similar to those discussed during the course. The purpose of the exam is to assess the student's ability to solve problems and design RF systems and microwave circuits. During the tests students can use books, notes and computers (without Internet connection).

In addition to the points gained with the tests, the final score can be increased with additional points (up to 3) awarded during innovative didactic activities.  


Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaMichel Steer, Microwave and RF Design, A System Approach, Editore: Scitech
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaDavid M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, Editore: John Wiley & Sons
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaSlides prepared by the teacher http://home.deib.polimi.it/macchiar/indice_file/Page584.html

Software utilizzato
Nessun software richiesto

Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
Ore di studio autonome
Laboratorio Informatico
Laboratorio Sperimentale
Laboratorio Di Progetto
Totale 99:51 150:09

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese
schedaincarico v. 1.6.9 / 1.6.9
Area Servizi ICT