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Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2020/2021
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Insegnamento 055556 - GEOPHYSICAL AND RADAR IMAGING
Docente Bernasconi Giancarlo , Monti-Guarnieri Andrea Virgilio
Cfu 10.00 Tipo insegnamento Corso Integrato
Didattica innovativa L'insegnamento prevede  1.0  CFU erogati con Didattica Innovativa come segue:
  • Blended Learning & Flipped Classroom

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (474) TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA DELLE TELECOMUNICAZIONI*AZZZZ094789 - GEOPHYSICAL IMAGING
055556 - GEOPHYSICAL AND RADAR IMAGING
055552 - RADAR IMAGING
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (476) ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA ELETTRONICA*AZZZZ055552 - RADAR IMAGING

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

The Geophysical and Radar Imaging course aims at providing students with a theoretical and practical understanding of remote sensing imaging systems currently used for mapping the Earth surface and subsurface.

- Geophysical imaging is used for the remote detection and characterization of targets in the subsurface, producing images of its relevant properties for engineering, environmental, geological applications. The course presents seismic, electrical and electromagnetic investigation methods from the fundamental theory up to data collection and processing. All these methods share the common principle of sending an analysis signal that can propagate in the subsurface and of recording and processing the back scattered signal. Seismic waves interact with the elastic properties of the media, electrical currents are influenced by media resistivity, EM waves sense the EM properties of the subsurface. Understanding the physical basis students will be able to discover the main applications of each method (e.g. hydrocarbons or water exploration, contamination tracking, geological layers identification, subservice mapping) and the potential of joining different methods to help the interpretation and the reliability of the results.

- Radar imaging is used for mapping the Earth surface from above. The focus is on systems for imaging from the close range, up to satellite remote sensing. The building blocks of the whole acquisition and processing chain are analyzed, with emphasis on sensors, scanning methods (antenna arrays), data processing and analytics, calibration, quality evaluation, and integration in Geographic Information System. The physical properties of EM images are discussed with notions from radiometry, speckle, and targets to show potentials and differences between imaging in optics, multi-spectral, infrared, and Radar. The in-depth analysis of antenna arrays leads to the base of modern high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radars, multi-static and MIMO Radar. Students would be able to understand features like identification of moving target, sensitivity to millimetric deformations, surface roughness and moisture, penetration through dense media, that makes of Radar a unique imaging systems.  

- Geophysical and radar methods and applications are presented and practiced within project laboratories that are part of the course. Applications like analysis for geo-hazards, subsurface mapping, infra-structure stability and health monitoring from space, will be experimented by downloading data from providers and space agencies, or acquiring with geophysical/radar equipment available for the course, and processes with Matlab or dedicated tools.


Risultati di apprendimento attesi

Dublin Descriptors

Expected learning outcomes

1 - Knowledge and understanding

Students will gain clear understanding about:

  • the physics behind sonic and electromagnetic remote sensing technologies
  • signal processing methods for the treatment of sonic and electromagnetic remote sensing data

2 - Applying knowledge and understanding

Students will be able to:

  • Design a geophysical / Radar survey
  • Define a data processing flow chart for processing geophysical and Radar data.
  • Use specialized SW to simulate a geophysical “scenario” (e.g. the elastic wave propagation in a layered medium) and to understand “experimentally” the theoretical principles.
  • Simulate electromagnetic acquisitions using Matlab
  • Implement algorithms to process Radar data using Matlab

3 - Making judgements

Students will be able to:

·         Understand the principles that govern the design of geophysical and Radar remote sensing systems

·         Identify pros and cons associated with use of different remote sensing technologies and data processing algorithms

·         Recognize the design space and its degrees of freedom that can be exploited to define new technologies

4 - Communication

Students will learn to:

·         Write a technical document on a specific case study (e.g.: design and implementation of a remote sensing survey, algorithm development, system analysis, etc.)

5 - Lifelong learning skills

 


Argomenti trattati

Geophysical Imaging:

Seismic methods: Elastic properties of rocks, Hooke law, elastic wave equation, Born approximation, diffraction tomography. Refraction and reflection seismic methods: data acquisition and processing. Traveltime tomography. Examples of application and analysis of case histories.

Electrical and electromagnetic methods: Electrical properties of the rocks. Electromagnetic wave propagation in low loss media. Electrical prospecting: data acquisition and inversion. Resistivity method, self-potential method, induced polarization method. Electromagnetic prospecting: data  acquistion and interpretation. Conductivity meter, metal detector, magnetotelluric method. Ground Penetrating Radar: data acquisition and processing. Examples of application and analysis of case histories.

Principles of rock physics: Physical properties of porous rocks and geophysical measurements: constitutive equations, rock properties estimation and observability.

Integrated applications of geophysical methods: Cooperative inversion, joint inversion.

 

Radar Imaging:

Remote sensing principles, methods and applications: from IR to visible. Review of principles: Plank, Wien, Boltzmann laws. Radiance, reflectance & Kirchhoff law. Remote sensing imagers: radiometers, spectrometers, optical satellites. Image generation (acquisition, scanning), properties (resolution, field of view, noise, number of looks), and processing (calibration, geocoding, detection, data analysis and quality evaluation). Applications and use of optical and radiometric images.

Coherent imaging. Review of plane wave, wave propagation, polarimetry. Properties: speckle and its statistical properties, coherence and radiometric resolution. Example: Lidar. Antenna arrays, real and synthetic, grating lobes, processing (beam-forming, back-propagation) and applications: change identification, high resolution location.

RADAR basics: Doppler Radar (identification of moving target), pulsed radars (precise location by ranging), ambiguities, waveforms (chirp), monostatic and bistatic Radars. Radar cross section, thermal noise and the  Radar equation. Imaging radar (SLAR) and Radar scene properties: distributed and point targets, geometric distortions and image generation (back-projection) in Synthetic Aperture Radars

 RADAR systems and applications: Interferometric, tomographic and polarimetric methods and examples. Applications for digital elevation model generation, millimetric deformation estimation (infra-structures and building stability and health), geo-hazard monitoring, classification, vertical profiling of natural media (ice sheets).

Vehicle Radars: MIMO sytems, 3D imaging, advanced methods (focusing super-resolution), pedestrian and anti-collision applications


Prerequisiti

Introductory courses in signal processing and mathematics.


Modalità di valutazione

Oral exam and discussion of homeworks / project. The presentation can be given in italian or in english.

 


Bibliografia
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaReynolds J.M., An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics, Editore: John Wiley & Sons
Note:

geophysical imaging

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaA. Ferretti, A. Monti Guarnieri, C. Prati, F. Rocca, D. Massonnet, InSAR Principles: Guidelines for SAR Interferometry Processing and Interpretation, Editore: ESA TM-19 http://home.deib.polimi.it/monti/ftp/srl/SAR_I.pdf
Note:

Radar Imaging

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaAndrea Monti-Guarnieri, Electromagnetic Imaging http://home.deib.polimi.it/monti/ftp/srl/SAR_I.pdf
Note:

Radar Imaging


Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
(hh:mm)
Ore di studio autonome
(hh:mm)
Lezione
60:15
97:00
Esercitazione
29:10
52:00
Laboratorio Informatico
2:18
0:00
Laboratorio Sperimentale
2:17
0:00
Laboratorio Di Progetto
6:00
1:00
Totale 100:00 150:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese
schedaincarico v. 1.6.5 / 1.6.5
Area Servizi ICT
23/04/2021