Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2020/2021
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Docente Casella Francesco
Cfu 5.00 Tipo insegnamento Modulo Di Corso Strutturato

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

Physical processes involving fluid flow, heat transfer and thermal/mechanical power conversion are at the heart of numerous engineering systems, whose performance crucially depends on control. The main goal of the course is to provide the methodological foundations for the control-oriented dynamic modelling of such systems, enabling the students to understand what are the control-relevant phenomena, how to model them and how to use these models to design effective control strategies. Particular emphasis is put on the concept that the achievable control performance is determined by the dynamic physical behaviour of the process and on establishing links between physical process behaviour and control-relevant aspects.

The concepts are applied to a number of examples in the field of process control and thermal power generation, thus also providing the students an overview of typical control problems in this field and on how they can be solved effectively once the dynamic process behaviour has been clearly analyzed. The course mostly focuses on cases that can be analyzed with simple, closed-form analytic models, but also briefly discusses the role of numerical modelling and simulation for more complex cases.

Risultati di apprendimento attesi

At the end of the course, the student

  • knows the basic conservation equations governing thermo-mechanical-hydraulic processes, both lumped-parameter (0D) and distributed-parameters (1D)
  • knows the constitutive equations of the models of specific phenomena (such as pressure losses or heat transfer) as well as of specific machinery (such as valves, turbines, compressors, etc.)
  • understands the time scale of different dynamic phenomena in these processes
  • is aware of how classical control problems are solved in the field of fluid processing and thermal power generation
  • understands the role of simplified analytical control-oriented models and of more detailed numerical simulation models for the design of control systems
  • understands how the mechanical design parameters and the operating point of such systems influence their controllability and how it may be possible to improve the control performance also by changing these parameter (process-control co-design)

The student is able to

  • estimate the time scale of different dynamic phenomena in thermo-hydraulic-mechanical processes, so as to select the ones which are relevant for control while neglecting those which are not
  • derive control-oriented dynamic models of thermo-hydraulic-mechanical processes
  • analyze these models and simplify them as much as possible to gain insight on the relationship between the mechanical design and operating parameters, the control design, and the achievable control performance
  • use appropriate numerical methods to extract control-relevant information from detailed numerical simulation models of the process
  • interact with specialists in the area of thermo-hydraulic-mechanical process design in multi-disciplinary teams with the ultimate goal of designing better-controlled innovative systems

The student is also able to explain what are the main control problems in a number of applications in the field of fluid processing and thermal power generation and which model-based control strategies can be used to solve them.

Argomenti trattati

Part 1: Introduction and fundamental equations

  • Role of modelling for the design of control systems
  • Detailed models for numerical simulation vs. simplified analytical models for control design
  • Mass, energy and momentum balance equations for 0D systems
  • Mass, energy and momentum balance equations for 1D systems
  • Estimation of time scales of different phenomena in 1D systems
  • Equations of state and thermodynamic properties of working fluids

Part 2: Modelling of components of thermo-hydraulic and power production processes

  • Control valves and piping equipment
  • Turbomachinery: pumps, compressors, turbines
  • Simplified models of combustion phenomena
  • Single-phase heat exchangers
  • Two-phase heat exchangers and boilers
  • Electrical power generation and transmission equipment

Part 3: Analysis and design of control systems

  • Control of simple hydraulic circuits
  • Power/frequency control in hydro power plants
  • Temperature control in single-phase heat exchangers
  • Control pressure, level and load in simple steam generators
  • Control problems in coal-fired and combined-cycle power plants
  • Numerical methods to extract control-relevant information from numerical models
  • Applications in the control of innovative power generation systems


A solid understanding of the design of linear SISO controllers (PID-type), basic MIMO linear control design, cascaded control, and disturbance compensation techniques. A good understanding of the performance limitations of linear controllers, particularly in the case of non-minimum-phase processes is also recommended.

Basic knowledge of technical thermodynamics: fluid properties, enthalpy and entropy, basic heat transfer (convection, radiation, conduction) and storage, basic understanding of the working principles of turbomachinery (pumps, compressors, turbines) and of power generation cycles (Brayton, Rankine).

Modalità di valutazione

The final learing assessment is by written exam, with optional oral discussion to change the final mark up to +/- 3 points. During the exam, the student will be asked to

  • Write down appropriate conservation laws and consitutive equations for all the system components described in the course
  • Evaluate the time scale of different physical phenomena in a given process and, based on that, decide what are the most appropriate modelling assumptions for a control-oriented model
  • Derive simplified models of the fundamental dynamics of a given process, that can be used for control design, and use them to derive a control strategy and possibly to tune the controller parameters
  • Describe and discuss the control-relevant dynamic phenomena, the control problems and the control strategies of the systems discussed during the course

The student will also be asked to hand in a home assignment, where he/she will be asked to design and test the controller of a specific process. A detailed simulation model of the process will be provided, as well as an open-source environment to run it.


Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaLecture notes
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaG. Quazza, Controllo dei processi, Editore: Clup, Anno edizione: 1976
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaR. Dolezal, L. Varcop, Process Dynamics - Automatic Control of Steam Generation Plant, Editore: Elsevier, Anno edizione: 1970
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaC. Maffezzoni, Dinamica dei generatori di vapore, Editore: Masson, Anno edizione: 1989
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaC. Maffezzoni, Controllo dei generatori di vapore, Editore: Masson, Anno edizione: 1990
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaF. Saccomanno, Electric Power Systems: Analysis and Control, Editore: Wiley Interscience, Anno edizione: 2003
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaS.G. Dukelow, The Control of Boilers, Editore: ISA, Anno edizione: 1991

Software utilizzato
Nessun software richiesto

Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
Ore di studio autonome
Laboratorio Informatico
Laboratorio Sperimentale
Laboratorio Di Progetto
Totale 50:00 75:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
schedaincarico v. 1.6.8 / 1.6.8
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