1st Module - This course deals with topics concerning the UN Sustainable Development Goals 15 (Life on Land), 14 (Life Below Water), 13 (Climate Action) and 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production).
The course is divided into five parts:
- environmental spheres
- global change
- spatial tools
- global energy balance
- temperature, winds and global circulation
- weather and climate systems
- hydrologic cycle, moisture and precipitation
- global ocean, fresh water, cryosphere
- lithosphere, weathering, global soils
- energy and matter flows in ecosystems
- biogeography and biodiversity
These topics will be covered in succession and will be accompanied by tutorial classes as appropriate.
Statistics. Observables and observations, random errors, Gaussian distribution, variance and standard deviation, n-dimensional case and covariance matrix, mean and covariance propagation. Least squares and chi square test.
Reference Frames. Earth structure and shape: geoid, ellipsoid, geoid ondulation and deflection, cartesian and geodetic coordinates. Spherical and local planar approximations.
Surveying instruments. Theodolite, EDM, level: instruments and observation equations
Cartography. Mapping the sphere: equations; the UTM projection. Digital Terrain Models
Classwork. Transformations between coordinate and heights systems. Mean computation, variance computation: 1D, n-D; covariance propagation. Direct intersection, levelling: propagation and closure analysis. Stereo/polar coordinates computation