The purpose of the Studio is to understand and know the phases necessary for the design of the existing building conservation project, the principles and best practices that are indispensable in the historical construction and essential for the graduation of architecture graduates. In addition to the creation of thematic maps concerning historical constructive techniques, forms of degradation or manifest or latent disruption with the study of the causes - for which the development of the survey is necessary - analyzes useful techniques for the diachronic reading of buildings, transferring the awareness of the role of the historical survey within the conservation process. Following the indispensable analysis phase to make informed and consistent choices, the student develops the artifacts conservation project by analyzing - among others - the requirements of efficacy, compatibility, durability, reversibility ... and sets the project for a possible new compatibility, considering the necessary adjustments to changing needs. Attention is also drawn to the drafting of the technical documents accompanying it, to the legislative framework within which it is built and to the connection between theoretical aspects and practical activity.
The purpose of the Laboratory is to make the student aware of the features and problems that the intervention on the built presents, in relation to its historical and cultural significance and at the same time as a resource for contemporary use. Therefore, besides ex cathedra lessons, he/she expects practical lessons on the concrete case studies to be "taught by doing" with the aim of implementing critical skills and operational tools that stimulate the care process to the built environment.
Risultati di apprendimento attesi
According to the Dublin Descriptors (DdD), passing the exam certifies the acquisition of the following results:
DdD 2 ability to apply knowledge and understanding
- ability to analyze the constructive and material characteristics of the historical building, to recognize the construction techniques, the structural elements and their respective functions, the materials and their physical and mechanical characteristics, the possible state of structural deterioration, the behavioural characteristics in relation to climatic and microclimatic issues;
- ability to develop projects for the conservation, restoration, recovery, reuse of architectural artefacts and the ability to manage transformations over time.
DdD 3 (autonomy of judgment), 4 (communication skills) and 5 (learning ability)
- ability to operate and communicate independently the design choices made (DdD 3, 4 and 5).
The aim of the teaching is to provide students to any methodological instrument (cultural, theoretical and operating) they need to approach a global preservation project, starting from the reference cultural framework, to the analysis of the present state of preservation and characteristics of the building, building techniques and materials.
The first part of the teaching program provides methodological and theoretical background, starting from the question of origins, legitimacy and validity of the discipline of restoration. The theoretical framework of conservation is outlined through its historical conceptual development. Furthermore, lectures improve the students’ knowledge to apply in the survey and in the project to develop in the second part. The teaching describes the methods to collect information, to study in depth the building and the relationship between material characteristics, environment and decay and the following intervention strategies, including monitoring and maintenance. These methods range from historical-archive research to the direct analysis and survey of the building.
The direct and detailed inspection of the building characteristics outlines the present state of the building; the characteristic features of the construction techniques and structure; the stratification which has occurred through the several variations in building techniques and materials over time; the level of decay in both the surface materials and the eventual damage of the structure; and techniques of conservation. The teaching will involve the description of the materials and building techniques of the Architectural Heritage, including the affected pathologies, decay processes and the testing procedures.
The geometrical survey of historic building is a fundamental aspect in order to plan each type of restoration/conservation activity. For this reason, the teaching introduces innovative survey techniques that can serve as the basis for further analysis. In particular the following techniques will be presented:
The second phase, which will be part of the student practice as well, includes:
geometrical and architectural survey and representation;
study of the building evolution;
study of the building technology;
characterization of the materials and of their decay, including surface material and decay mapping;
evaluation of the building damage, including discontinuity and crack pattern survey;
investigation project and monitoring;
conservation project and reuse approaches and goals;
The on-site practical work is an effective opportunity to compare the individual methodologies and instruments provided by the various disciplines. This will involve some example of the digitization processes (different methods and tools) but also the identification of the conservation and planning/design items emerged during the analysis e.g. in relation both to the use of space (in particular public use) and the norms and regulations that govern that use.
Modalità di valutazione
The teaching will include theoretical lectures, planning practices, preservation surveys, on site visits.
Students must attend all lessons, onsite visits and surveys.
The workshop activity will include a direct survey of a historic building proposed by the teachers and a planning activity. Geometrical, material and surface damage survey, historic evolution, study of the structure and of the building characteristics, environment relationships will be considered in the analysis. This information will be at the base of the planning/design activity developed by each group and submitted at the end of the semester.
The field work and the design activity are organised in small groups and will be backed up by seminars in which students will present their own material, underlining the personal questions and the reflections linked to the lecture themes, their own study of the class references. The work progress will be reviewed each week.
The final exam result merges both the evaluation of the knowledge and the quality of the survey, the graphical presentation, the design proposal developed in group, the midterm and the final tests. The students must demonstrate through the onsite work on a proposed historic building the capacity of applying the knowledge and understanding, with making judgements. The evaluation will consider the punctuality and the completeness of each submission, as well.
The mid term and (eventual) final written tests will evaluate each student's knowledge and progress concerning the theoretical lesson topics. The final mark will be individual and will be based on the results of the following tests:
1.Analysis of the case study and of the surrounding (Delivery 1. approx mid October) - group
2.Research concerning meaningful preservation case-histories (Oral + written) (Delivery 2. approx end October) - group
3.Geometrical survey (Delivery 3. approx November) - group
4.Written test concerning references and teaching topics (approx mid of November) - individual
5/6.Survey of the materials/damage/decay (Delivery 4/5.. approx end November) - group
7.Preliminary presentation of the design concept (Delivery 6. approx mid December) – group
8.The final work to submit before the exam.
The final oral test will focus on the project developed in group and on the topics discussed during the classes and on the related bibliography. It will include the discussion on the theoretic background and on the survey and planning activities developed during the year in group. Each student must demonstrate the knowledge and the understanding of all the class topics, showing the relationships of the project with the several class lectures and the former teachings, within an independent critical approach. The oral test will evaluate the learning and communication skills of each student.
Given the practical nature of the Architectural Preservation Studio, each student will be evaluated even for his/her ability to operate in team with a positive attitude towards the outcome.
A. Saisi, Class notes Note:
L. Binda, A.Saisi, C. Tiraboschi, Investigation procedures for the diagnosis of historic masonries/Construction and Building Materials, Editore: Elsevie, Anno edizione: 2000, Fascicolo: 14/4 Note:
-Metric Survey Specifications for Cultural Heritage
-3D Laser Scanning
-Photogrammetric Applications for Cultural Heritage
-The Presentation of Historic Building Survey in CAD
-BIM for Heritage: Developing a Historic Building Information Model
-Traversing the Past: landscape survey
G. Baronio, L. Binda, The durability of masonry in aggressive environments and techniques for conservation and protection, Editore: Caithness : Whittles, Anno edizione: 2006, ISBN: 1870325583 Note:
Durability of materials and structures in building and civil engineering, editors Yu, C. W. and Bull, John W., 2006.