The purpose of the Studio is to understand and know the phases necessary for the design of the existing building conservation project, the principles and best practices that are indispensable in the historical construction and essential for the graduation of architecture graduates. In addition to the creation of thematic maps concerning historical constructive techniques, forms of degradation or manifest or latent disruption with the study of the causes - for which the development of the survey is necessary - analyzes useful techniques for the diachronic reading of buildings, transferring the awareness of the role of the historical survey within the conservation process. Following the indispensable analysis phase to make informed and consistent choices, the student develops the artifacts conservation project by analyzing - among others - the requirements of efficacy, compatibility, durability, reversibility ... and sets the project for a possible new compatibility, considering the necessary adjustments to changing needs. Attention is also drawn to the drafting of the technical documents accompanying it, to the legislative framework within which it is built and to the connection between theoretical aspects and practical activity.
The purpose of the Laboratory is to make the student aware of the features and problems that the intervention on the built presents, in relation to its historical and cultural significance and at the same time as a resource for contemporary use. Therefore, besides ex cathedra lessons, he/she expects practical lessons on the concrete case studies to be "taught by doing" with the aim of implementing critical skills and operational tools that stimulate the care process to the built environment.
Risultati di apprendimento attesi
According to the Dublin Descriptors (DdD), passing the exam certifies the acquisition of the following results:
DdD 2 ability to apply knowledge and understanding
- ability to analyze the constructive and material characteristics of the historical building, to recognize the construction techniques, the structural elements and their respective functions, the materials and their physical and mechanical characteristics, the possible state of structural deterioration, the behavioural characteristics in relation to climatic and microclimatic issues;
- ability to develop projects for the conservation, restoration, recovery, reuse of architectural artefacts and the ability to manage transformations over time.
DdD 3 (autonomy of judgment), 4 (communication skills) and 5 (learning ability)
- ability to operate and communicate independently the design choices made (DdD 3, 4 and 5).
The purpose of the Studio is to provide preservation theory and practice to make the students able to understand the complexity of the historic Heritage and to learn how to survey, represent, analyze, evaluate, conserve and reuse it.
The aim of the Studio is to teach how to recognize the historic and cultural significance of our Heritage and also to consider it like a current urban, architectural, landscape, social resource.
Lectures and in situ surveys will teach how to evaluate, at different scales, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the case study to provide a method to elaborate a conservation and re-use plan.
The Studio will provide methodological and theoretical references and operational tools that are necessary to elaborate a preservation plan with a multidisciplinary approach.
Methodologies and advanced surveying techniques will provide digital skill to manage 2D-3D mapping and models, including multi-images photogrammetric process, multi-temporal map and scan registry.
The course will introduce the content of the Agenda 2030 and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), together with the activities of the GEO Group on Earth observation related to the landscape themes. A webinar to learn how Earth Observation and satellite images can be used for climate change analysis and pressures on landscape transformation (i.e. in the case of land degradation) will be performed helping students to access the satellite data, and to manage them with specific analysis tools and functionalities (i.e. NDVI index). A case study will be finalized to this aim.
The teaching will be conducted on the base of an in situ survey (organized in small groups), defining multi-temporal maps and transformation analysis on the case study, recognizing its proper characters, its evolution, identifying the diagnosis of structures and materials decay.
The analysis of the constructive features of the historical building/site - recognizing construction techniques, structural elements, materials and their physical and mechanical characteristics, investigating also the surrounding environmental, climatic and microclimate conditions - will allow to highlight their peculiarities and vulnerabilities.
After the analytical phase, absolutely necessary to elaborate a design strategy, the conservation and management plan will be developed, also considering new compatible uses, and technical changes due to current needs and rules.
The two modules of this Preservation Studio are strictly integrated, during the analysis phase and the pro-active design step to demonstrate the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and cooperation.
The course develops the issues related to the preservation and conservation of architectural heritage, examining the evolution of historic preservation in Europe as a grown cultural process: from the protection of few monumental works of architectures to the preservation of urban districts, and indeed whole historic towns, cultural landscapes and historic sites.
Because of new perspective of the value of the past, the preservation domain is being enlarged by a radical increase in the types of artefacts being considered worthy of protection and conservation: in addition to monumental high-style architecture - traditionally the preservation concern - whole new categories of sites are now recognized as equally meritorious: cultural and natural landscapes, historic towns and villages, vernacular and industrial structures, etc.
The course analyses some significant restoration, conservation, or rehabilitation projects concerned historic buildings and districts and examines the current preservation approaches, techniques and treatments, focused on conserving the historic stratification of the architectural heritage and defining compatible reuses.
The Studio provides theoretical and methodological basic principles, starting from the question of origins, legitimacy and validity of the discipline of restoration. The theoretical framework of conservation is outlined through its historical conceptual development, the ideas of the main protagonists (E.E. Viollet le Duc, J. Ruskin and W. Morris, C. Boito, L. Beltrami, A. Riegl, G. Giovannoni, M.Dezzi Bardeschi, etc.) and the definition of strategic keywords as “monument”, “heritage”, “built environment”, “preservation”, “restoration” and “conservation”. Such keywords compose the core concepts of the discipline.
The workshop focuses on the conservation problems and treatments of historic heritage studying a building/a site, starting from a survey and a diagnosis project. In order to fulfil this issue, the main building materials and technologies will be presented, as well as their pathologies and structural problems.
It will be considered also the current Italian preservation law and various documents - “Charters” and recommendations - that have, at national and international level, a decisive effect on the preservation/management criteria adopted by public and private agencies.
Preservation goal is to prevent decay and neglecting, and within this objective, it also includes mitigation of the aggressive environment, maintenance, but also the management of the possible uses and new functional requirements taking into account the scale problems, impact and meaning (monument, historical, consolidated city, the cultural landscape).
Furthermore, lectures improve the students’ knowledge to apply in the survey and in the project to develop in the final part of the workshop. The lectures describe the methods to collect information, to study in depth the building and the relationship between material characteristics, environment and decay and the following intervention strategies, including monitoring and maintenance. These methods range from historical-archive research to the direct analysis and survey of the building.
The direct and detailed inspection of the building characteristics outlines the present state of the building; the characteristic features of the construction techniques and structure; the stratification that has occurred through the several variations in building techniques and materials over time; the level of decay in both the surface materials and the eventual damage of the structure; and techniques of conservation.
The workshop activity will include a direct survey of a historic building related to its context proposed by the teachers and a planning activity. Geometrical, material and surface damage survey, historic evolution, study of the structure and of the building characteristics, environment and cultural landscape relationships will be considered in the analysis in order to define a preservation and re-use project.
SURVEY ADVANCED TECHNIQUE
Innovative integrated surveying techniques based on laser-scanning (TLS), multispectral 3D-2D photogrammetric survey (i.e. RGB images, Thermal IR images and NIR images), and direct surveying, devoted to 2D-3D representation, HBIM and 3D orthoimage, will be explained during the course and experimented during the on site workshop.
Particularly, the geometric survey will be oriented to the knowledge representation and to the content comprehension and interpretation of the arte-fact, through the co-relation of the geometry its-self together with the construction technologies and the material analysis carried out by the other course of the Studio.
The course provides methodological and practical basic principle to manage multi-temporal maps (current and historic maps coming from open geoportal, remote accessible open data, archives, private collection) and data registry process distinguishing the metric and non metric map origin.
Simplified techniques as rectified images, 3D orthophotos and image merging for panoramic views generation will be faced for the different heritage-landscape-built environment-archeological site documentation purposes together with micro-drone surveying potentials and integration with the terrestrial on site techniques, Geolocation and GPS data acquisition.
3D modelling of complex shape basic element (ScantoBIM generative modeling and Historical Building Information Model parametrization) to use and manage such information will be explained in order to experiment 3D Object content models augmented by the different information coming from different disciplines for the management of the architectural heritage within a multidisciplinary and multi-actors framework.
An introduction to object modelling and HBIM (Heritage Building Information Modelling) applications for different purposes (preventive conservation, planned maintenance, inspection, support decision making, LCM, energy efficiency purposes and structural behavior) will be addressed to the data sharing interoperability and management of the architectural complex and of its components (i.e. fronts, vault system, slab, ceiling, beam, wall, pillar, arches, roof), enriched by the information (i.e. material and construction technologies, stratigraphic units, chronological phases).
The 2D-3D mapping, modeling and the HBIM generation will be applied by the students on the selected case study.
The objective is the management of the whole architectural complex and of its object based components (vault system, slab, ceiling, beam, vertical wall, pillar, arches, roof), enriched by the the information (i.e. material and construction technologies, stratigraphic units, chronological phases), that can be used for the different purposes: preventive conservation and planned maintenance, structural analysis and behavior (BIM-to-FEA), management of the object families and their aggregation for energy efficiency assessment with the contribution of all the courses of the Preservation Studio Lab.
The workshop in situ activity of the 2 courses (Preservation and Survey) includes:
2D-3D geometrical and architectural survey and modelling of the selected building/site;
2D-3D multi-temporal map representation using current and historic cartography;
study of the dimensions and the proportions of the building and its context;
study of the building and its context evolution;
study of the building technology;
analysis, identification and representation of the geometry and construction techniques of the constructive elements;
characterization of the materials and of their decay, including surface material and decay mapping;
evaluation of the building damage, including discontinuity and crack pattern survey, and mapping;
investigation project and monitoring;
conservation and reuse approaches and goals;
preservation and management technical instruments and strategies.
The Course requires preliminary elements of the current theoretical debates on preservation, and of the traditional building technologies and decay processes.
The attendance to such lectures, as well all the class activities, is mandatory.
Non required, although preliminary knowledge in preservation theory and practice, survey basic technique is suggested.
Modalità di valutazione
According to the Dublin Descriptors (DdD), passing the exam certifies the acquisition of the following results:
DdD 1 – Knowledge and understanding
- Knowledge and understanding about: the current concept of Heritage, Preservation Theory, Heritage Survey Mapping and Modeler tools, Heritage critical analysis methodologies, including multi-temporal analysis.
DdD 2 - ability to apply knowledge and understanding
- ability to recognize in our Heritage the cultural and historic significance and the current architectural, urban, landscape, social value;
- ability to compare multi-temporal historic and current maps to understand cultural heritage, landscape and built environment;
- ability to define a SWOT analysis about an historical building/site in order to define preservation strategies,
- ability to develop conservation and reuse plans of historic buildings/sites and to define a preservation management plan in order to control the transformations over time.
-ability to use innovative tools (open source map registry, open source GIS data management, 2D rectification of the fronts, 3D expedite photogrammetry) to support the transformation analysis, the conservation level, the preservation plan, the heritage design and management, both at (i) the architectural scale through digital geometric and thematic representation of plans, elevations and sections and 3D models, and (ii) at the landscape scale a 2D-3D multi-temporal map data management;
- ability to analyze and map the constructive and material components of an historical building/site, to recognize the construction techniques, the structural elements and their function, the materials and their physical and mechanical characteristics, the level of decay, the connected climatic and microclimatic issues;
- ability to develop a project involving theoretical aspects and practical tools learned during the course, merging all the issues of the two modules.
DdD 3 - autonomy of judgment and DdD 4 - communication skills
- ability to operate and communicate independently the design choices made and to explain methods, tools and strategy developed.
The evaluation will be based on the knowledge and understanding of theoretical lectures, planning practices, preservation surveys and applied knowledge acquired during the lectures and the on site visits.
The final evaluation is the result of the following steps:
- Milestone presentations (involving communication skills) about the on site work, where students will explain their own material, underlining the personal questions and the reflections linked to the lecture themes, their own selection of references and their design purposes (DdD1, DdD2, DdD3, DdD4)
- Group work: it will be evaluated the group result of the on site work considering the survey and analysis phase (map analysis; geometric, material, decay survey; critical SWOT analysis), the 2D-3D models and representation, and the design activity (preservation strategies, master plan, conservation treatments, re-use interventions) (DdD2, DdD3, DdD4). The coherence gained among the analysis, the operational tools, the skills, and the theoretical objectives of the courses in the design activity will be highly taken in account.
- Final oral exam. The final oral test will focus on the project developed in group and on the topics discussed during the classes and on the related bibliography, with the contribution of both the two courses, including the technical skills acquired. It will include the discussion on the theoretic background and on the survey and planning activities developed during the year in group. Each student must demonstrate a knowledge of all the theoretical topics, showing the relationships between the class lectures and the case study, the coherence among the practical skill acquired by the tools and the theoretical objectives of the courses applied in the (DdD1, DdD2, DdD3, DdD4).
Students should attend all lessons, onsite visits and surveys
The attendance of the on site activities is possible only after the following of the on-line Basic Course on Safety and the mandatory submitting of the final certificate
A printed copy and digital copy of the group work (PDF and data source) must be delivered 5 days before the exam date.
Delivered materials will be archived; neither printed nor digital copies (including CD or USB key) will be returned.
M.Boriani, A.Cazzani, Cultural Heritage Preservation in Italy, Editore: Oemme edizioni, Venezia, Anno edizione: 2014 Note:
in: G.Casnati (edited by), The Politecnico di Milano in Armenia
M.Petzet, Principles of preservation: An introduction to the International Charters for Conservation and Restoration 40 years after the Venice Charter, Editore: ICOMOS, München,, Anno edizione: 2004 https://www.icomos.org/venicecharter2004/petzet.pdf Note:
In: AA.VV., International Charters for Conservation and Restoration. Monuments & Sites, I
Il Nuovo Codice dei Beni Culturali e del Paesaggio, DL 42/2004 e ss.mm.