Part 1: ELECTRON AND SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPIES
- Probes with high spatial resolution and state of the art in research and applications.
- Interaction of free electrons and bound electrons with matter.
- Information obtained by using electronic probes.
a) Far field electron microscopy
- Introduction to electron microscopy
- Diffraction limit and ray optics
- The scanning electron microscope (SEM)
- Interaction between electron and matter
- Secondary electron contrast
- Depth of field
- Charging and other imaging artifacts
- Back-scattered electron contrast
- Auger and X-ray Micro-spectroscopy probes in SEM
- The transmission electron microscope (TEM)
- Sample preparation
- Bright and dark field imaging
- The mass-thickness contrast
- Direct and reciprocal space imaging
- The diffraction contrast
- The phase contrast
- The scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)
- Electron energy loss spectroscopy in STEM
- The time resolution in Electron Microscopy
- Real time acquisition
- Ultrafast pump-probe acquisition
b) Scanning probe microscopies
- Introduction to scanning probe microscopy
- Elements of a scanning-probe microscope
- Tip-sample forces
- Static AFM operation: constant height and constant force- Shift in the natural frequency of a harmonic oscillator under a force gradient
- Amplitude-modulation dynamic AFM operation
- Dynamic AFM operation: sensitivity in amplitude modulation, frequency-modulation techniques
- Noise and resolution in AFM
- Image analysis in AFM
- Magnetic force microscopy
- Other magnetic microscopy techniques
- Imaging artifacts in scanning probe microscopy
- Scanning near-field optical microscopy
- Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy
- Introduction to scanning tunneling microscopy
- Bardeen approach (time-dependent perturbation theory) to the tunneling current
- WKB approximation for the evaluation of the tunneling probability
- Atomic resolution with STM
- Scanning tunneling spectroscopy
Image analysis and practical use of research instrumentation.
The couse will be held in the first half of the first term, from mid September to the beginning of November.
The range and detail of the course will be adapted to the level of the class during the course and may change significantly.
Part 2: MICRO AND NANOSTRUCTURE FABRICATION
I - Deposition
- Introduction to micro and nanofabrication: objectives, examples.
- Vacuum technology: kinetic theory of gases, gas transport and pumping, vacuum pumps, vacuum systems
- Surface thermodynamics: surface properties, homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, film growth modes, nucleation
- Epitaxy: mechanisms, lattice orientation, strain
- Physical Vapor Deposition: introduction, difference between techniques
- Thermal Evaporation: rate and uniformity, electrically heated and e-beam sources, MBE, PLD
- Sputtering: sputtering mechanisms, introduction to plasma physics, DC, RF, reactive and magnetron sputtering
- Chemical Vapor Deposition: introduction, types of reactions, thermodynamic and gas flow, classification of thermally- and plasma-activated CVD techniques
- Characterization techniques: optical methods (ellipsometry), mechanical methods (profilometry, quartz microbalance), XRD, microscopies, electron spectroscopies (AES, XPS), electron diffraction (RHEED, LEED)
II - Lithography
- Introduction to lithography: device scaling, Moore’s law
- Optical lithography: process flow and technology
- Physics of optical exposure: diffraction, numerical aperture, types of illumination
- Resolution enhancement technologies: illuminations, masks, lenses, resists
- Advanced photolithographic techniques: maskless optical lithography, extreme ultraviolet lithography, X-ray lithography
- Electron beam lithography: physical principles, process flow and technology
- Other advanced lithographic techniques: soft and nanoimprint lithography, focused ion beam, scanning probe lithography
- Pattern transfer: dry and wet etching
- CMOS process flow and other examples
The main deposition and lithography techniques will be shown to students in the clean-room at the PoliFab laboratory.
The course will be held in the second half of the first semester, from November to December.