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Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
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Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2019/2020
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale e Territoriale
Insegnamento 097461 - ECOSYSTEMS CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
Docente Gatto Marino
Cfu 10.00 Tipo insegnamento Monodisciplinare

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento
Ing - Civ (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (440) INGEGNERIA PER L'AMBIENTE E IL TERRITORIO*AZZZZ097461 - ECOSYSTEMS CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
Ing - Civ (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (489) INGEGNERIA PER L'AMBIENTE E IL TERRITORIO - ENVIRONMENTAL AND LAND PLANNING ENGINEERING*AZZZZ097461 - ECOSYSTEMS CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
099467 - ECOSYSTEMS CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT FOR ENG4SD
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - BV (477) ENERGY ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA ENERGETICA*AZZZZ097461 - ECOSYSTEMS CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

Aim of the course is to provide students with the quantitative instruments for rationally managing animal and plant populations and ecosystems. 


Risultati di apprendimento attesi

The students will have

- Knowledge and understanding of advanced ecological approaches that extend the basic ecological notions to (a) the spatial distribution of organisms, (b) the effect of uncertainties, disturbances and in general stochasticities, (c) the impact of humans on ecosystems and its rational management, (d) the interaction between ecosystem management and human health.

- Application of these quantitative approaches to several problems that concern ecosystems conservation and management. In particular: (a) evaluate the likelihood of population decline and extinction (risk analysis); (b) estimate the chance of success for the reintroduction of species that are locally extinct; (c) calculate the speed of invasion of alien species; (d) estimate the impact of habitat erosion and destruction on population and community viability; (e) estimate the impact of human harvesting on populations viability and assess optimal harvesting regulations; (f) assess the likelihood of establishment of diseases that are due to parasites, both micro and macro, that live in our common environment.

- Autonomous problem solving abilities, that allow the students to answer more complex questions that are often a blend of the above cited simpler problems.

- Autonomous learning abilities, based on the training received during course attendance, that allow the students to acquire the notions necessary to solve applied ecological problems that are not explicitly illustrated in the present course.

 


Argomenti trattati

1. Species and populations threatened by extinction:
– The causes of extinction: review. Local extinction, global extinction, extinction in the wild.
– Analysis of the main extinction mechanisms and quantitative approaches for evaluating the extinction risk. Allee effect and depensation. Genetic deterioration. Fundamentals of population genetics. Hardy-Weinberg law. Genetic drift and the Sewall Wright model. Extinction thresholds.
– Demographic and environmental stochasticity. Extinction probability in small populations. Stochastic models of populations driven by environmental variability. Quasi-extinction thresholds. Extinction vortices. Population viability analysis (PVA). Review of the main PVA software tools.
2. Populations in spatially explicit landscapes:
– The importance of space in ecology. Habitat loss and fragmentation as important mechanisms of extinction. The problem of alien species invasion.
– Dispersal in animals and plants. Diffusion as a way to describe dispersal. Diffusion equation in limited and unlimited habitat.  Adding demography to diffusion: the reaction-diffusion equation. Speed of colonization and invasion. Critical reserve dimension.
– Habitat fragmentation and the metapopulation concept. Various metapopulation models. The Levins boolean model. Incorporating habitat loss and environmental catastrophes. Persistence boundaries in metapopulations. Spatially explicit metapopulation models. Ecological corridors.
3. Sustainabilty of biomass harvesting and its management:
– The overexploitation and depletion of biological renewable resources. Examples from forestry and fisheries. The tragedy of the commons. Open access and the consequences of not regulating the exploitation of renewable resources. Different management goals.
– The dynamics of harvested populations. The concept and measure of harvesting effort. Different regulation policies: exclusive, nonexclusive, economic. Production curves. Maximum sustainable yield. Schaefer's model.
– Principles of bioeconomics. Gordon's analysis. Bionomic equilibrium and the effect of the opportunity cost. Socioeconomic impacts of various regulation policies. The bioeconomic optimum.
– The management of age-structured populations. The optimal rotation period in forest management. The effect of the discount rate. Fish populations with constant recruitment. The problem of optimal effort and mesh size. Beverton and Holt's analysis. The eumetric mesh size and eumetric production curves. Bioeconomic considerations.
4. Parasite and disease ecology:
– Ecology and public health. Emerging and reemerging diseases. Zoonoses. Parasitism and its importance for population regulation. Microparasites and macroparasites. Parasitoids.
– Dynamics of diseases caused by microparasites. Various transmission mechanisms: direct, water and airborne, environmental, vertical. Susceptible, exposed, infected and recovered individuals. Incidence and prevalence. Diseases with permanent and temporary immunity. SI and SIR models. The regulation of Malthusian populations. The basic reproduction number of a microparasitic disease. Vector-borne diseases. Ross-MacDonald model. Water-borne diseases. SIB models. Vaccination and culling policies.
– Dynamics of diseases caused by macroparasites. Anderson and May's model for the dynamics of hosts and parasites. Distribution of parasite burden inside a host and the clumping parameter. The basic reproduction number of a macroparasitic disease.
– Parasitoids and hosts. Nicholson and Bailey's model. Biological control of alien and noxious organisms.

The course deals with topics concerning the UN Sustainable Development Goals number 14 (Life below water) and 15 (life on land).


Prerequisiti

Basic concepts of population ecology, such as those provided in the course of Ecologia at the Bachelor in IAT at PoliMI. Fundamentals of calculus, differential equations and probability. The necessary notions will briefly be recalled during the course.


Modalità di valutazione

Two written tests during the course or written evaluation during regular exam sessions. Written tests include both numerical exercises and conceptual questions.


Bibliografia
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaM. Gatto, R. Casagrandi, Ecosystem conservation and management - Lecture notes
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaM. Gatto and R. Casagrandi, Ecosystems conservation and management - exercises
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaR. Casagrandi, G. A. De Leo and M. Gatto (2002), 101 problemi di ecologia., Editore: McGraw Hill, Anno edizione: 2002, ISBN: 883866041-7
Note:

This is optional


Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
(hh:mm)
Ore di studio autonome
(hh:mm)
Lezione
65:00
97:30
Esercitazione
35:00
52:30
Laboratorio Informatico
0:00
0:00
Laboratorio Sperimentale
0:00
0:00
Laboratorio Di Progetto
0:00
0:00
Totale 100:00 150:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese

Note Docente
schedaincarico v. 1.6.5 / 1.6.5
Area Servizi ICT
23/04/2021