Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (473) AUTOMATION AND CONTROL ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA DELL'AUTOMAZIONE

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097471 - ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL

Goals

Physical processes involving fluid flow, heat transfer and thermal/mechanical power conversion are at the heart of numerous engineering systems, whose performance crucially depends on control. The main goal of the course is to provide the methodological foundations for the control-oriented dynamic modelling of such systems, enabling the students to understand what are the control-relevant dynamic phenomena, how to model them and how to use these models to design effective control strategies. Particular emphasis is put on the concept that the achievable control performance is determined by the dynamic physical behaviour of the process and on establishing links between physical process behaviour and control-relevant aspects.

The concepts are applied to a number of classical examples in the field of process control and thermal power generation, thus also providing the students an overview of typical control problems in this field and on how they can be solved effectively once the dynamic process behaviour has been clearly analyzed.

Expected learning outcomes

At the end of the course, the student

knows the basic conservation equations governing thermo-mechanical-hydraulic processes, both lumped-parameter (0D) and distributed-parameters (1D)

knows the constitutive equations of the models of specific phenomena (such as pressure losses or heat transfer) as well as of specific machinery (such as valves, turbines, compressors, etc.)

understands the time scale of different dynamic phenomena in these processes

is aware of how classical control problems are solved in the field of fluid processing and thermal power generation

understands how the mechanical design parameters and the operating point of such systems influence their controllability and how it may be possible to improve the control performance also by changing these parameter (process-control co-design)

The student is able to

estimate the time scale of different dynamic phenomena in thermo-hydraulic-mechanical processes, so as to select the ones which are relevant for control while neglecting those which are not

derive control-oriented dynamic models of thermo-hydraulic-mechanical processes

analyze these models and simplify them as much as possible to gain insight on the relationship between the mechanical design and operating parameters, the control design, and the achievable control performance

interact with specialists in the area of thermo-hydraulic-mechanical process design in multi-disciplinary teams with the ultimate goal of designing better-controlled innovative systems

The student is also able to explain what are the main control problems in a number of applications in the field of fluid processing and thermal power generation and which model-based control strategies can be used to solve them.

Topics

Part 1: Introduction and fundamental equations

Role of modelling for the design of control systems

Detailed models for numerical simulation vs. simplified analytical models for control design

Mass, energy and momentum balance equations for 0D systems

Mass, energy and momentum balance equations for 1D systems

Estimation of time scales of different phenomena in 1D systems

Equations of state and thermodynamic properties of working fluids

Part 2: Modelling of components of thermo-hydraulic and power production processes

Control valves and piping equipment

Turbomachinery: pumps, compressors, turbines

Simplified models of combustion phenomena

Single-phase heat exchangers

Two-phase heat exchangers and boilers

Electrical power generation and transmission equipment

Part 3: Analysis and design of control systems

Control of simple hydraulic circuits

Power/frequency control in hydro power plants

Temperature control in single-phase heat exchangers

Control of gas turbines

Control pressure, level and load in simple steam generators

Control problems in coal-fired and combined-cycle power plants

Pre-requisites

A solid understanding of the design of linear SISO controllers (PID-type), basic MIMO linear control design, cascaded control, and disturbance compensation techniques. A good understanding of the performance limitations of linear controllers, particularly in the case of non-minimum-phase processes is also recommended.

Basic knowledge of technical thermodynamics: fluid properties, enthalpy and entropy, basic heat transfer (convection, radiation, conduction), basic understanding of the working principles of turbomachinery (pumps, compressors, turbines) and of power generation cycles (Brayton, Rankine).

Assessment

The final learing assessment is by written exam, with optional oral discussion to change the final mark up to +/- 3 points. During the exam, the student will be asked to

Write down appropriate conservation laws and consitutive equations for all the system components described in the course

Evaluate the time scale of different physical phenomena in a given process and, based on that, decide what are the most appropriate modelling assumptions for a control-oriented model

Derive simplified models of the fundamental dynamics of a given process, that can be used for control design, and use them to derive a control strategy and possibly to tune the controller parameters

Describe and discuss the control-relevant dynamic phenomena, the control problems and the control strategies of the systems discussed during the course

Bibliography

Lecture notesG. Quazza, Controllo dei processi, Editore: Clup, Anno edizione: 1976
R. Dolezal, L. Varcop, Process Dynamics - Automatic Control of Steam Generation Plant, Editore: Elsevier, Anno edizione: 1970
C. Maffezzoni, Dinamica dei generatori di vapore, Editore: Masson, Anno edizione: 1989
C. Maffezzoni, Controllo dei generatori di vapore, Anno edizione: 1990
F. Saccomanno, Electric Power Systems: Analysis and Control, Editore: Wiley Interscience, Anno edizione: 2003
S.G. Dukelow, The Control of Boilers, Editore: ISA, Anno edizione: 1991

Software used

No software required

Learning format(s)

Type of didactic form

Ore di attività svolte in aula

(hh:mm)

Ore di studio autonome

(hh:mm)

Lesson

34:00

51:00

Training

16:00

24:00

Computer Laboratory

0:00

0:00

Experimental Laboratory

0:00

0:00

Project Laboratory

0:00

0:00

Total

50:00

75:00

Information in English to support internationalization