logo-polimi
Loading...
Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2019/2020
Scuola Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione
Insegnamento 097516 - GRAPHENE AND NANOELECTRONIC DEVICES [I.C.]
Docente Chrastina Daniel , Sordan Roman
Cfu 10.00 Tipo insegnamento Corso Integrato

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Insegnamento
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (486) ENGINEERING PHYSICS - INGEGNERIA FISICA*AZZZZ054859 - NANODEVICES CHARACTERIZATION
097606 - GRAPHENE NANOELECTRONICS
097516 - GRAPHENE AND NANOELECTRONIC DEVICES [I.C.]
097607 - NANODEVICE FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
054858 - GRAPHENE NANOELECTRONICS AND NANOFABRICATION

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

As modern technology moves ever further into the nanoscale, it becomes essential to extend fundamental solid-state physics knowledge to systems of reduced dimensionality. The tools developed to understand charge transport in high mobility 2-dimensional systems, such as semiconductor heterostructures and graphene, focus on the behaviour of electrons in solids in electric and magnetic fields. The study of the rich physics seen in these systems at low temperatures and high magnetic fields allows an understanding to be developed of state-of-the-art devices operating under everyday conditions, which is fundamental to the development of future technology.

Details of the first part of the integrated course are given on the "Nanodevice Characterization" page.

The second part of the course is focused on the extraordinary physical properties of graphene (and related 2D materials) and their application in the development of nanoelectronic devices. The main goal of this part of the course is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the physics of the state-of-the-art graphene electronic devices and realistically evaluate possible applications of graphene in modern electronics. The course also presents the state-of-the-art methods for the fabrication of electronic devices at the nanoscale providing the comprehensive understanding of the fabrication methods used both in industry and research laboratories. 

Details of the second part of the integrated course are given on the "Graphene Nanoelectronics and Nanofabrication" page.


Risultati di apprendimento attesi

- Knowledge and understanding

The students will learn about the main physical phenomena relevant to low-dimensional semiconductor structures and devices.

The students will study the electronic properties of crystalline semiconductor materials, with particular emphasis on silicon, germanium, and the SiGe alloy system.

The students will learn about the main physical properties of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials and how they can be exploited to realize 2D electronic devices.

The students will study some of the physical and mechanical properties of crystalline materials.

The students will learn about the state-of-the-art technologies for the fabrication of nanostructures and how they can be used to fabricate electronic devices at the nanoscale for applications in research and industry.

- Apply knowledge and understanding

The students will learn how to recognise relevant physical phenomena in terms of their manifestation in experimental results.

The students will understand how to extract important parameters and figures of merit from experimental transport data.

The students will understand the relevance of mechanical strain, and strain relaxation, on the properties of semiconductors.

The students will be able to extract important parameters and figures of merit of field-effect transistors (FETs) based on graphene and related 2D materials, both in dc and at high-frequencies.

The students will be able to evaluate the performance of FETs made of 2D and conventional semiconductor materials.

The students will be able to understand advantages and disadvantages of 2D FETs with respect to conventional Si transistor technology.

The students will be able to design a process flow for the fabrication of electronic devices at the nanoscale.

- Making judgements

The students will understand how to design experiments which can measure relevant parameters and figures of merit.

The students will understand how to physically characterize semiconductor materials.

The students will have the ability to compare different transistor technologies in terms of their applications in electronics.

The students will have the ability to select appropriate applications in electronics for FETs based on graphene and related 2D materials.

The students will have the ability to compare different nanofabrication techniques in terms of throughput, resolution, and possible applications in electronics.

- Lifelong learning skills

The students will be capable to autonomously learn how to use novel 2D and nanostructured materials in the development of transistors and electronic circuits.

The students will be capable to autonomously learn the features of new nanofabrication techniques.

The students will be prepared to begin a masters' thesis project in a semiconductor research laboratory.


Argomenti trattati

Nanodevice Characterization:

Linear transport theory

  • Scattering mechanisms and screening
  • Quantum and transport lifetimes

The Boltzmann equation

  • Relaxation time approximation
  • Electrical and thermal conductivity
  • Thermoelectric processes

2-dimensional carrier gases

  • Ballistic transport
  • High electron mobility transistors

Weak magnetic fields at low temperature

  • Weak localization

Strong magnetic fields at low temperature

  • Landau levels
  • Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations
  • Quantum Hall effect

Strong magnetic fields at room temperature

  • Parallel conduction channels
  • Mobility spectrum

Vertical transport devices

  • Transfer matrix treatment
  • Resonant tunneling

Methods of obtaining physical and structural information at the nanoscale

  • X-ray diffraction of thin films
  • High-resolution x-ray diffraction
  • Nanofocused x-ray beams at synchrotron light sources
  • Raman and micro-Raman spectroscopy in semiconductors
  • Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
  • Micro-photoluminescence

 

Graphene Nanoelectronics and Nanofabrication:

Introduction to carbon-based material

  • Allotropes and hybridization of carbon
  • Band structure and massless Dirac fermions in graphene
  • The origin of high carrier mobility in graphene
  • Comparison with carbon nanotubes
  • Klein paradox and half-integer quantum Hall effect
  • Methods for the synthesis of graphene

Graphene field-effect transistors (FETs)

  • The importance of high carrier mobility in electronic devices and circuits
  • Physics of graphene devices
  • Comparison between graphene and conventional FETs
  • Ambipolarity of graphene FETs
  • Electrostatic doping in graphene electronic circuits
  • The importance of drain current saturation and voltage gain
  • Impact of contact resistance on the properties of graphene FETs
  • Scaling and short-channel effects
  • Related 2D materials (e.g., MoS2)
  • Impact of band gap opening in graphene on FET properties

Small-signal model of graphene FETs

  • Low-frequency AC small signal model of FETs (hybrid-pi model)
  • Determination of transconductance gm and output conductance gd

Voltage and current gain

  • Definition of voltage and current gains
  • Intrinsic voltage gain gm/gd and intrinsic current gain h21

High-frequency model of graphene FETs

  • Extrinsic high-frequency model of FETs
  • Phasors in electronic circuits
  • Two-port networks
  • h and Y parameter models of two-port networks

Cutoff frequency fT of graphene FETs

  • Cutoff frequency from Y parameters
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic cutoff frequency fT of graphene FETs
  • Comparison of graphene and conventional FETs in terms of fT

Power gain and maximum frequency of oscillation fmax of graphene FETs

  • Definition of power gain
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic maximum frequency of oscillation fmax of graphene FETs
  • Comparison of graphene and conventional FETs in terms of fmax
  • S parameters of two-port networks

Graphene electronic circuits

  • Moore’s law
  • Voltage gain and multi-stage circuits
  • Noise margin
  • Static and dynamic power dissipation
  • Graphene electronic circuits: amplifiers, mixers, frequency multipliers, logic gates
  • Realistic gate delays and graphene ring oscillators

Nanodevice Fabrication

  • Introduction to lithography
  • Deep ultraviolet lithography
  • Resolution enhancement technologies
  • Extreme ultraviolet lithography
  • Electron beam lithography
  • Alternative lithographic technologies
  • Pattern transfer
  • Nanofabrication of graphene nanoelectronic devices and circuits

Prerequisiti

For Nanodevice Characterization the student will benefit from having already completed some courses in solid-state physics, for example Solid State Physics (096033) and Physics of Surfaces (096056).

 

For Graphene Nanoelectronics and Nanofabrication the student will benefit from having already completed some courses in solid-state physics, for example Solid State Physics (096033) and Electronics (096032). However, this is not obligatory.

 


Modalità di valutazione

For Nanodevice Characterization the student will be evaluated by oral examination according to the calendar of the course.

The student will be expected to discuss the physical phenomena which give rise to certain results or experimental effects, and what information regarding the characterization of the sample or device under test can be extracted from the experimental results. Emphasis is placed on the comprehension of real experimental data rather than calculation of simplified systems or reproduction of text-book derivations.

 

For Graphene Nanoelectronics and Nanofabrication the student will be evaluated by written examination according to the calendar of the course. The student will be expected to discuss the physical phenomena underlying applications of graphene in electronics, solve basic (i.e., single-transistor) electronic circuits with graphene, extract transistor parameters and determine corresponding figures of merit.


Bibliografia
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaJ. H. Davies, The Physics of Low-Dimensional Semiconductors, Editore: Cambridge University Press, Anno edizione: 1998
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaNeil W. Ashcroft and N. David Mermin, Solid State Physics, Editore: Thomson Learning
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaLuis E. F. Foa Torres, Stephan Roche, Jean-Christophe Charlier, Introduction to Graphene-Based Nanomaterials - From Electronic Structure to Quantum Transport, Anno edizione: 2014, ISBN: 9781107030831
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaJuin J. Liou, Frank Schwierz, Hei Wong, Nanometer CMOS, Anno edizione: 2010, ISBN: 9814241083
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaZheng Cui, Nanofabrication - Principles, Capabilities and Limits, Anno edizione: 2008, ISBN: 9780387755762

Software utilizzato
Nessun software richiesto

Forme didattiche
Tipo Forma Didattica Ore di attività svolte in aula
(hh:mm)
Ore di studio autonome
(hh:mm)
Lezione
65:00
97:30
Esercitazione
35:00
52:30
Laboratorio Informatico
0:00
0:00
Laboratorio Sperimentale
0:00
0:00
Laboratorio Di Progetto
0:00
0:00
Totale 100:00 150:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua Inglese
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese
schedaincarico v. 1.7.0 / 1.7.0
Area Servizi ICT
26/05/2022