1. Solar radiation
Characteristics of extra-terrestrial solar radiation and solar radiation at ground level, solar geometry, sky models, instruments and methods for solar radiation measurement. Availability and utilizability of solar radiation.
2. Transmission and absorption of solar radiation
Selected heat transfer topics. Optical properties of covers and mirrors. Transmittance-absorptance product: directional and spectral dependence. Absorbed solar radiation.
3. Flat plate collectors
Energy balance equations for a simple flat-plate collector. Overall heat loss coefficient. Temperature distribution on the collector plate. Fin efficiency, collector efficiency and collector heat removal factors. Liquid and air collectors.
4. Concentrating solar collectors
Energy balance equations for the concentrating collector: concentration ratio. Concentrating systems: fixed, single axis tracking, double axis. Direct normal irradiance (DNI); Intercept factor; Global thermal efficiency; Optical and thermal performances. Characteristics of Sun tracking systems.
5. Performance of solar collectors
Definition of efficiency curve. Test methods for solar collectors: American and European standards.
6. Thermal energy storage
Requirements of thermal energy storage in solar thermal systems. Water storage: thermal stratification. Solid-liquid phase change storage. Seasonal thermal storage. Dimensioning of the storage system: calculation of energy performance and financial aspects. High temperature storages: technologies (molten salts, phase change material, thermocline, concrete), challenges and costs.
SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS
7. Active solar thermal systems
Solar water heaters for sanitary hot water production: small-scale systems and multi-family house systems. Solar combi-systems: space heating and domestic hot water production. Solar thermal systems for space cooling. Industrial applications of solar thermal heat: process heat.
8. Solar thermal systems design
The solar loop: low-flow and high-flow systems. Collector fields: hydraulic balancing, orientation, series and parallel connection, shadowing. Modified collector efficiency; piping heat losses. Heating loads calculation. Solar fraction.
9. Financial evaluation of solar thermal projects
Key performance indicators in financial evaluations: boundary conditions and uncertainty. Thermo-economic optimization.
10. Simplified design method: F-Chart
Origin of the F-Chart methods. The F-Chart methods for solar water heaters and combi systems.
11. Modelling and simulation tools
Transient simulation of solar thermal systems for hot water production with MATLAB. Worked-out examples of solar system simulations: dimensioning, control strategy implementation, operation optimization.
12. Solar cooling and refrigeration
Thermally driven cooling technologies: absorption and adsorption chillers, desiccant evaporative cooling systems. Solar driven cooling and refrigeration systems.
13. Medium and High temperature applications
Applications of medium and high temperature collectors: process heat, concentrating solar power.