Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - BV (469) AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA AERONAUTICA

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051172 - AERODYNAMICS

Obiettivi dell'insegnamento

Teaching objectives

The course presents in great details the fundamentals of aeronautical aerodynamics, in order to provide a solid background to future engineers working in the aeronautical and automotive industries, or other fields involving aerodynamic applications. The course starts with a quick and intense review of the fuild mechanics to allow all students to approach with confidence the study of aerodynamics. Subsequently, the course focuses on the aerodynamics of external flows at high Reynolds numbers. The central part of the course focuses on the aerodynamics of airfoils and wing of a finite span to provide students with an essential expertise for future aeronautical engineers. Finally, the last part of the course addresses some aspects of the aerodynamic of the helicopters to provide a liason with more advenced courses on rotary-wing aircrafts. The course is complemented by weekly tutorial sessions where students have the opportunity to apply and practice the material presented in class. Finally, the course is concluded by an experimental laboratory, where team of students will perform experiments in a wind tunnel.

Attention is paid throughout the course to the correspondence between experimental observations and various conceptual and analytical models of flows. The photographs and movies of flow systems that will presented in class are an essential part of the course, and will help students the develop a sense of the reality that lies beyond the theoretical arguments and analysis.

Risultati di apprendimento attesi

Expeceted learing outcomes

Lectures and tutorial sessions will allow students to: * Reinforce and consolidate basic knowledge in fluid dynamics, mathematics and physics. * Develop a clear understanding of the fundamental aerodynamic phenomena relative to incompressible and compressible flows past bluff bodies, airfoils and wings of a finite span. * Develop the ability to apply the theoretical techniques presented during the course to solve complex aerodynamic problems, in particular to estimate accurately the aerodynamic properties of airfoils and wings of a finite span. * Develop and reinforce critical thinking to assess the importance of novel advences in aerodynamics. * Understand the applicability of some of the techniques introduced during the course to closely related fields.

The experimental laboratory will allow students to: * Familiarize with an experimental laboratory environment, understand how to perform reliable measures in a wind tunnel, learn to produce an effective report of the laboratory activities. * Develop team work capabilities. Enphasis is placed on personal communication and dynamic collaboration through group projects involving experimental testing.

Argomenti trattati

Course outline

Introduction to Fluid dynamics: Derivation of the conservation equations, Navier-Stokes and vorticity equations, dimensionless numbers, limiting forms of Navier-Stokes equations and boundary conditions. Detailed solution of fundamental flows belonging to boundary layer theory.

Two-dimensional, incompressible and irrotational flows: Velocity potential, Laplace's equation and boundary conditions. Elementary solutions: uniform flow, source, vortex and doublet. Flow around a cylinder with circulation. Kutta-Joukowski theorem. Kutta condition. Joukowski's airfoil.

Aerofoil aerodynamic: Thin aerofoil theory and aerofoil stall. Quasi-stationary theory of thin aerofoils. Theory of Theodorsen. Dynamic stall. Concepts of wind tunnel testing.

Wings of a finite span: Phenomenology of a flow past wings of a finite span. Downwash, induced drag. Lifting-line theory. Ailerons and flaps.

Compressible flows: Conservation laws for the compressible flows. Bernoulli equation for compressible flows. Speed limit. Normal and oblique shock waves, expansion waves. Aerofoils and wings in compressible flow; shock stall.

Numerical Methods: General concepts of boundary element methods and formulation of panel methods. Vortex lattice for the modeling of lifting surfaces and wakes. Correction for the boundary layer effects and for small compressibility. The use of CFD codes in aerodynamic problems.

Aerodynamics of high incidences and bluff bodies: Phenomenology of separated flows. Wings with small aspect ratio. Vortex shedding from 2D bluff bodies.

Prerequisiti

Pre-requisites

Students should be proficient in the fluid mechanics at undergraduate level. Students should also be proficient in the mathematics spanning from Calculus to Ordinary Dierential Equations, Linear Algebra and Boundary Value Problems, Partial Dierential Equations up to Complex Analysis.

Modalità di valutazione

Assessement

Final exams are scheduled after the end of course by the Politecnico di Milano, no midterm tests are offered. The purpose of the final exam is to establish in a fair and equitable way the understanding and knowledge of the students of the material introduced in class, during the tutorial and in the experimental laboratory sessions. In order to ensure a final exam fair and equitable to all students, the final examination is written only. The exam consists of a three-hour closed-notes closed-books written test, spanning a combination of theoretical and practical questions. It is responsabilty of the students to write a clear and crisp exam to show their level of knowledge and understanding of the material introduced in class, during the tutorail and experimental laboratory sessions. An example of a final exam and its solution will be provided to students toward the end of the course.

Bibliografia

Anderson J.D., Fundamentals of aerodynamicsBatchelor G., Introduction to fluid mechanicsBertin J.J. and Cummings R.M., Aerodynamics for engineersCurrie I.G., Fundamental mechanics of fluidsFox R.W. and McDonald A.T., Introduction to fluid mechanicsGordon J., Principles of helicopter aerodynamicsKatz J. and Plotkin A., Low speed aerodynamicsLugt H.J., Vortex flow in nature and technologyMilne-Thomson, L.M., Theoretical aerodynamicsPanton R.L., Incompressible flowStepniewski W.Z. and Keys C.N., Rotary wing aerodynamics

Software utilizzato

Nessun software richiesto

Forme didattiche

Tipo Forma Didattica

Ore di attività svolte in aula

(hh:mm)

Ore di studio autonome

(hh:mm)

Lezione

70:00

105:00

Esercitazione

20:00

30:00

Laboratorio Informatico

0:00

0:00

Laboratorio Sperimentale

10:00

15:00

Laboratorio Di Progetto

0:00

0:00

Totale

100:00

150:00

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione

Insegnamento erogato in lingua
Inglese

Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese

Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese

Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese

Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese