Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - BV (483) MECHANICAL ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA MECCANICA
052714 - ENERGY AND EMISSIONS IN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (475) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA ELETTRICA
052714 - ENERGY AND EMISSIONS IN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
This course is focused on the energy pathways and the related emissions in the transport sector, from the primary energy source to the final utilization in the vehicle drivetrain. The objective is to provide to the students the methodology and the tools for the evaluation and fair comparison of consumption and emissions related with production, transportation and final use of conventional and advanced fuels, as well as other energy carriers (such as electricity and hydrogen). In particular, Well-to-Wheel and LCA methodologies are presented. The knowledge about energy pathways includes traditional and innovative energy conversion systems, as well as energy transport technologies. The presentation of the conventional, hybrid and electric drivetrains completes the framework for the complete pathways evaluation. A specific focus is also given to energy storage systems, in particular to batteries. The course is completed with an overview of the current energy scenario and the foreseen evolution in the transportation sector, including the regulation aspects for emissions control.
Risultati di apprendimento attesi
Knowledge and understanding
The student is expected to know and understand the basic processes for fuels and energy carriers production, with a particular focus on the ones employed in the transportation system. The knowledge of the energy conversion steps, of their energy efficiency and related emissions, both in the energy carrier production and in its utilization, is required. Moreover, the student should be able to provide information about the current energy scenario and the foreseen evolution related with the transportation sector. A basic knowledge of the regulation framework and the policy active for emissions control in the transport sector is also part of the stock of knowledge.
Applying knowledge and understanding
The student has to be able to apply the abovementioned concepts to estimate the energetic and environmental performances of an energy carrier production and transportation pathway, combined with the final use in a specific vehicle drivetrain. The student has to be able to evidence the links between energetic and environmental performances of the systems, as well as the differences between different kind of emissions.
Judgement and communication skills
The capacity of discussing the main advantages and drawbacks of the energy solutions for transportation is mandatory, and also the capacity of judge and compare different innovative solutions proposed or already present on the market. The student has to be able to present the influence of energy scenarios on the transportation system.
Introduction: Comparative evaluation of the energy and environmental issues in transportation systems, with particular mention to the greenhouse effect. Life Cycle Analysis. Externalities. Global balances of primary energy and of CO2 emissions, by using the “well-to-wheels” methodology.
Emissions from internal combustion engines: fundamental thermodynamic aspects, mechanisms of formation of pollutants (NOx, particulate, unburned hydrocarbons), abatement of pollutants by primary and secondary methods (filters, catalysts) for Diesel and Otto engines.
Hybrid and electric propulsion: Technologies for electric energy storage in commercial vehicles and passenger cars (batteries): principles, technical characteristics and performance of different types of batteries, state-of-the-art and future technologies; super-capacitors and flywheels. Level of hybridization (mild, full, plug-in), possible power train configurations.
Alternative (non-fossil) fuels: Hydrogen (fuel cells: basic principles with particular reference to PEMs; technologies for hydrogen storage in gaseous and liquid state, metal hydrides; on-board reforming systems; basics on the production of hydrogen from renewables and fossil fuels, liquefaction, supply chain). Biofuels and synthetic fuels (production of bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, DME, bio-methane, SNG and others).
Regulation: Present situation and future evolution. Regulations about fuels and emissions. Driving cycles and evaluation of real emissions (test bench and on-the-road driving conditions).
Scenarios evaluation: Comparative evaluation of the various technologies described above (e.g. conventional, electric, hybrid, hydrogen- or bio-fueled vehicles) under the possible utilization conditions, for different scenarios of progressive diffusion of electrification and of ‘smart’ interaction with the electric grid and the fuel distribution / NG infrastructure. Expected evolution of the energy sector.
A basic knowledge of mechanics (kinematics), chemistry (reactions stoichiometry, chemical equilibrium) and thermodynamics (definition of energy and enthalpy, energy conservation) is required to be able to manage the concepts of energy conservation in production and transportation systems, of energy flows in the vehicle drivetrains and of pollutants formation and abatement. Moreover, this basic knowledge will help in understanding thermodynamic processes underlying the synthesis of conventional fuels, bio-fuels and the production processes of hydrogen and electricity as alternative energy carriers.
Modalità di valutazione
The course is structured including both theoretical and practical front lessons. The student is also expected to apply the explained concept for energy and emission analysis of a pathway in a brief report that will be evaluated during the final examination. The content of the report will be the energetic and environmental analysis of one selected energy pathway.
The evaluation process comprises two steps:
- a written evaluation of the concepts presented during the course including numerical exercises and open-ended questions on the topic presented during the course. The objective is to check the capacity to perform simplified evaluations of the energetic and environmental performances of energy pathways, as well as the knowledge of tools and methodologies for efficiency and emissions estimates. The knowledge of the energy scenario, regulation framework and energy processes is tested through open-ended questions.
- a short oral discussion of the abovementioned report.The student has to be able to present the calculations performed, the main assumptions and their influence on the results. The objective is to verify the capacity of the student to perform detailed evaluations of the energetic and environmental performances of energy pathways.
An optional oral evaluation on theoretical and numerical topics can be considered, if required to clarify particular situations.
Tipo Forma Didattica
Ore di attività svolte in aula
Ore di studio autonome
Laboratorio Di Progetto
Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese