Introduction – Trends of imaging: 3D, functional, multi–modality.
Advanced Methods for 3D Reconstruction from Projections
– A general frame–work of the problem: discrete to continuous, discrete to discrete, continuous to continuous.
– Iterative (discrete to discrete) Maximum Likelihood methods, Aglebraic reconstruction technique (ART); maximum likelihood (ML) methods in nuclear medicine imaging.
– Fundamentals of analytical (continuous to continuous) 3D methods; approximated cone–beam Feldkamp, Davis, Kress (FDK) algorithm.
Principles of MRI
– Introduction, application overview, physical principles and instrumentation.
– Generation of nuclear magnetic resonance signal.
– Signal characteristics: FID, Spin Echo, Stimulated Echo, Gradient Echo.
– Signal localization: slice selection, frequency encoding, phase encoding, k–space.
– MRI contrast. Proton density, T1, T2, T2*. Recall of main sequence introduced in the previous course.
– PSF, Gibbs ringing artefact, chemical shift artefact, movement artefacts, SNR.
In vivo MR Spectroscopy (MRS) e Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI)
– Chemical shift artefact; signal: absorption mode; applications C–13, P–31, H–1; localization
Functional MRI (fMRI)
– Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) sequence, BOLD signal, smoothing, registration, filtering, hemodynamic response.
– Introduction to Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), regressors, confounding effects, contrast testing.
MR Angiography (MRA) and perfusion studies
– Principles: phase contrast, time of light (TOF), Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) angiography.
– General perfusion concepts: regional blood flow, volume, mean transit time. DCE and dynamic suscettivity contrast (DSC) perfusion studies.
Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) e Tractography
– General concepts: attenuation due to diffusion and DWI.
– Diffusion tensor, principal directions and anisotropy indexes, tractography.
– Principles, linear and non–linear transforms, point based estimates.
– Surface based and volume (gray level) based estimates, mutual information.
The course is organized in frontal classes. Course material will be enriched by monographic seminars, possibly in external labs.