Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (486) ENGINEERING PHYSICS - INGEGNERIA FISICA

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096061 - MICRO AND NANOOPTICS [C.I.]

096510 - NANO OPTICS

Goals

The Aim of the course is threefold: (i) to introduce the student to the theoretical foundations and main applications of Nanooptics; (ii) to provide the student with a set of advanced tools and methods for the design and quantitative description of optical components and devices at the nanoscale; (iii) to give the student the theoretical basis for the understanding of highly innovative topics in modern Photonics.

Expected learning outcomes

The student understands the physical basis of the optical phenomena taking place at the nanoscale.

The student knows the guidelines for the modeling and design of nanooptical devices.

The student is aware of the key functionalities and challenges in nanooptics.

The student is able to apply the basic knowledge described above for:

explaining the operating principles of some prototypal optical devices at the nanoscale, with particular attention to their quantitative description and to the validity limits of the models under consideration;

solving simple problems in dielectric periodic media, metal based (plasmonic) nanostructures and metamaterials;

understanding new trends in the high-tech market (from IT highways, to lab-on-chip and nanomedicine) dealing with advanced photonic structures.

Topics

1. Theoretical Foundations of Nanooptics. Electromagnetism as an eigenvalue problem: electromagnetic harmonic modes, symmetries and classification of harmonic modes. Scaling properties of Maxwell's equations. Wave propagation in homogeneous and inhomogeneous media: angular spectrum representation, TE-TM decomposition, scalar diffraction theories, optical Schroedinger equation.

2. Photonic Crystals. Generalities on periodic lattices. Bloch electromagnetic theorem. Photonic band structure. One-dimensional PCs: periodic layered media, band states and gap states, surface states and bulk defect states. Applications to Bragg reflectors and filters, omnidirectional dielectric mirrors, photonic Bragg fibers. Two-dimensional PCs: a polarization-indepenendent band-gap, point and line defects and application to PC cavities and waveguides, out-of-plane propagation and PC fibers. PC Interfaces: negative refraction and superprism effect.

3. Near-field Optics. Evanescent waves. The diffraction limit to optical imaging. From the far-field to the near-field. Introduction to near-field optical microscopy and applications.

4. Plasmonics. Optical properties of noble metals. Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs): derivation of the SPPs dispersion equation, optical properties of SPPs, excitation and detection of SPPs, plasmon-polaritons in thin metallic films (SR/LR-SPPs). Introduction to plasmonic waveguides. Localized plasmons (LPs): quasistatic theory of localized plasmonic resonances in noble metal nanospheres, optical properties of metallic nanoparticles (resonant polarizability, absorption and scattering cross-sections, field-enhancement, resonance tuning). Introduction to plasmonic nanosensing (SPR and SERS).

5. Metamaterials. Negative dielectric media. Artificial magnetism and materials with negative magnetic permeability (stack of metal cylinders, split ring resonators). Negative refractive index materials (NRM) and the effects of a reversed wave-vector. Surface electromagnetic modes in NRMs and Pendry's Perfect Lens. Experimental evidence of super-lenses with real materials. Introduction to Transformation Optics for the steering of light and cloacking of objects.

Pre-requisites

No pre-requisites, but the teaching makes use of the basic concepts of Optics and Electromagnetism.

Assessment

Written examination, optionally followed by an oral examination. The written exam consists of open questions (typically 2 questions to be solved in 1 hour and 45 minutes), aimed at ascertaining:

the understanding of the physical basis of the optical phenomena at the nanoscale;

the knowledge of the definitions, theorems and general concepts dealing with optical nanomaterials, including photonic crystals, plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials;

the capability to discuss, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the performance of prototypal nanooptical devices as a function of their key parameters.

Bibliography

Notes and handouts edited by the teacherhttps://beep.metid.polimi.it/L. Novotny, B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics, Editore: Cambridge University Press, (II Ed.), Anno edizione: 2012, ISBN: 978-0-511-81353-5
J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals - Molding the Flow of Light, Editore: Princeton University Press, (II Ed.), Anno edizione: 2008, ISBN: 978-0-691-12456-8
W. Cai, V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications, Editore: Springer, Anno edizione: 2010, ISBN: 978-1-4419-1151-3

Software used

No software required

Learning format(s)

Type of didactic form

Ore di attività svolte in aula

(hh:mm)

Ore di studio autonome

(hh:mm)

Lesson

40:00

60:00

Training

10:00

15:00

Computer Laboratory

0:00

0:00

Experimental Laboratory

0:00

0:00

Project Laboratory

0:00

0:00

Total

50:00

75:00

Information in English to support internationalization