Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (474) TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING - INGEGNERIA DELLE TELECOMUNICAZIONI
096032 - ELECTRONICS
Ing Ind - Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270) - MI (486) ENGINEERING PHYSICS - INGEGNERIA FISICA
096032 - ELECTRONICS
This is a course devoted to mastering techniques for signal recovery from noise in modern data acquisition systems. In a blend of electronics, physics and signal processing we will cover amplifiers, sensors and signal conditioning techniques, keeping an eye on both their physical/theoretical working principles and their real characteristics. Students are expected to gain skills on the design of relatively simple data acquisition systems and on the selection criteria of their various components.
Risultati di apprendimento attesi
Expected learning outcome
On completion of this course, students will:
· understand the principles and operation of operational amplifiers (OAs) and their limitations;
· have a sound knowledge of linear circuits made with OAs and of the techniques used to analyze the circuits and assess their performance;
· know the problems related to resistive sensors and their connection in a Wheatstone bridge configuration, either local or remote;
· understand noise in circuits and acquisition systems, its sources and properties;
· understand the principles of signal recovery from noise and know the different techniques.
1) knowledge and understanding
Specific examples and case studies will be provided to make students able to:
· design simple linear circuits employing OAs;
· design a proper sensor connection and a suitable amplifier accounting for non-idealities in the signal path;
· choose the correct signal recovery technique based on the signal and noise characteristics.
2) applying knowledge and understanding
Operation amplifiers (OAs): voltage and current amplifiers, input and output impedances. Negative feedback and application to amplifier design. Elementary linear stages and impedances. Real OAs: DC and AC parameters. Instrumentation amplifiers and CMRR. Frequency response of OA circuits, stability of the feedback loop and frequency compensation. Capacitive loading of OA stages.
Sensors: signal readout from resistive sensors: single-ended and differential signals, Wheatstone bridge and balancing, 2-, 3- and 4-wire connections. Temperature compensation. Sensor generalities and parameters: resolution, linearity, sensitivity, offset, drift. Example of resistive sensors: strain gauges. Temperature sensors: RTD and thermistors, electrical and thermal circuits. Thermoelectric effects and thermocouples.
Noise: signals and noise in time and frequency domains. Autocorrelation and power spectral density. Thermal noise in resistors, Nyquist derivation. Shot noise and Poisson random process model. Flicker noise. Noise in linear circuits and OAs, equivalent input noise. Noise factor and figure, signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Feedback and noise.
Signal recovery: the case of white noise: low-pass and time-variant filters. Weighting functions. Gated integrators and improvement of S/N. Boxcar averagers and ratemeters. Discrete-time filters and their representation in time and frequency domains. Comparison between continuous- and discrete-time filters. Optimum filtering. The case of low-frequency noise: high-pass filters and effect on pulsed signals. Baseline restorers. Amplitude modulation and synchronous detection. Lock-in amplifiers, analog and digital LIAs.
There is no official prerequisite for this course. However, an understanding of linear circuit theory is highly recommended and will be assumed. Some familiarity with symbolic impedances and Bode plots is also useful. Please, contact me if you have never been exposed to these topics before.
Modalità di valutazione
Students are required to pass a written exam, consisting of two problems with four questions each. Texts and solutions of previous examinations are available on the instructor’s website.
Lecture noteshttp://home.deib.polimi.it/spinelli/corsi/ele/ele.shtmlSergio Franco, Design with operational amplifiers and analog integrated circuits, 4th Ed., Editore: Mc Graw Hill, Anno edizione: 2015, ISBN: 978-0-07-802816-8
A. S. Sedra, K. C. Smith,, "Microelectronic circuits", Editore: Oxford Univ. Press, Anno edizione: 2009, ISBN: 0195323033
T. H. Wilmshurst, "Signal recovery from noise in electronic instrumentation", Editore: Hilger, Anno edizione: 1990, ISBN: 0750300582
Tipo Forma Didattica
Ore di attività svolte in aula
Ore di studio autonome
Laboratorio Di Progetto
Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione
Insegnamento erogato in lingua
Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese
Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese
Disponibilità di supporto didattico in lingua inglese