PDF file with the Studio presentation:
The purpose of the Studio is to provide preservation theory and practice to make the students able to understand the complexity of the historic Heritage and to learn how to survey, represent, analyze, evaluate, conserve and reuse it.
The aim of the Studio is to teach how to recognize the historic and cultural significance of our Heritage and also to consider it like a current urban, architectural, landscape, social resource.
Lectures and in situ surveys will teach how to evaluate, at different scales, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the case study to provide a method to elaborate a conservation and re-use plan.
The Studio will provide methodological and theoretical references and operational tools that are necessary to elaborate a preservation plan with a multidisciplinary approach.
Methodologies and advanced surveying techniques will provide digital skill to manage 2D-3D mapping and models, including multi-images photogrammetric process, multi-temporal map and scan registry.
The teaching will be conducted on the base of an in situ survey (organized in small groups), defining multi-temporal maps and transformation analysis on the case study, recognizing its proper characters, its evolution, identifying the diagnosis of structures and materials decay.
The analysis of the constructive features of the historical building/site - recognizing construction techniques, structural elements, materials and their physical and mechanical characteristics, investigating also the surrounding environmental, climatic and microclimate conditions - will allow to highlight their peculiarities and vulnerabilities.
After the analytical phase, absolutely necessary to elaborate a design strategy, the conservation and management plan will be developed, also considering new compatible uses, and technical changes due to current needs and rules.
The two modules of this Preservation Studio are strictly integrated, during the analysis phase and the pro-active design step to demonstrate the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and cooperation.
The course develops the issues related to the preservation and conservation of architectural heritage, examining the evolution of historic preservation in Europe as a grown cultural process: from the protection of few monumental works of architectures to the preservation of urban districts, and indeed whole historic towns, cultural landscapes and historic sites.
Because of new perspective of the value of the past, the preservation domain is being enlarged by a radical increase in the types of artefacts being considered worthy of protection and conservation: in addition to monumental high-style architecture - traditionally the preservation concern - whole new categories of sites are now recognized as equally meritorious: cultural and natural landscapes, historic towns and villages, vernacular and industrial structures, etc.
The course analyses some significant restoration, conservation, or rehabilitation projects concerned historic buildings and districts and examines the current preservation approaches, techniques and treatments, focused on conserving the historic stratification of the architectural heritage and defining compatible reuses.
The Studio provides theoretical and methodological basic principles, starting from the question of origins, legitimacy and validity of the discipline of restoration. The theoretical framework of conservation is outlined through its historical conceptual development, the ideas of the main protagonists (E.E. Viollet le Duc, J. Ruskin and W. Morris, C. Boito, L. Beltrami, A. Riegl, G. Giovannoni, M.Dezzi Bardeschi, etc.) and the definition of strategic keywords as “monument”, “heritage”, “built environment”, “preservation”, “restoration” and “conservation”. Such keywords compose the core concepts of the discipline.
The workshop focuses on the conservation problems and treatments of historic heritage studying a building/a site, starting from a survey and a diagnosis project. In order to fulfil this issue, the main building materials and technologies will be presented, as well as their pathologies and structural problems.
It will be considered also the current Italian preservation law and various documents - “Charters” and recommendations - that have, at national and international level, a decisive effect on the preservation/management criteria adopted by public and private agencies.
Preservation goal is to prevent decay and neglecting, and within this objective, it also includes mitigation of the aggressive environment, maintenance, but also the management of the possible uses and new functional requirements taking into account the scale problems, impact and meaning (monument, historical, consolidated city, the cultural landscape).
Furthermore, lectures improve the students’ knowledge to apply in the survey and in the project to develop in the final part of the workshop. The lectures describe the methods to collect information, to study in depth the building and the relationship between material characteristics, environment and decay and the following intervention strategies, including monitoring and maintenance. These methods range from historical-archive research to the direct analysis and survey of the building.
The direct and detailed inspection of the building characteristics outlines the present state of the building; the characteristic features of the construction techniques and structure; the stratification that has occurred through the several variations in building techniques and materials over time; the level of decay in both the surface materials and the eventual damage of the structure; and techniques of conservation.
The workshop activity will include a direct survey of a historic building related to its context proposed by the teachers and a planning activity. Geometrical, material and surface damage survey, historic evolution, study of the structure and of the building characteristics, environment and cultural landscape relationships will be considered in the analysis in order to define a preservation and re-use project.
SURVEY ADVANCED TECHNIQUE
Innovative integrated surveying techniques based on laser-scanning (TLS), multispectral 3D-2D photogrammetric survey (i.e. RGB images, Thermal IR images and NIR images), and direct surveying, devoted to 2D-3D representation, HBIM and 3D orthoimage, will be explained during the course and experimented during the on site workshop.
Particularly, the geometric survey will be oriented to the knowledge representation and to the content comprehension and interpretation of the arte-fact, through the co-relation of the geometry its-self together with the construction technologies and the material analysis carried out by the other course of the Studio.
The course provides methodological and practical basic principle to manage multi-temporal maps (current and historic maps coming from open geoportal, remote accessible open data, archives, private collection) and data registry process distinguishing the metric and non metric map origin.
Simplified techniques as rectified images, 3D orthophotos and image merging for panoramic views generation will be faced for the different heritage-landscape-built environment-archeological site documentation purposes together with micro-drone surveying potentials and integration with the terrestrial on site techniques, Geolocation and GPS data acquisition.
3D modelling of complex shape basic element (ScantoBIM generative modeling and Historical Building Information Model parametrization) to use and manage such information will be explained in order to experiment 3D Object content models augmented by the different information coming from different disciplines for the management of the architectural heritage within a multidisciplinary and multi-actors framework.
The 2D-3D mapping, modeling and the HBIM generation will be applied by the students on the selected case study.
Tools in an interoperable work environment for the different finalization of the design project with a critical point of view: open source image rectifying, data registry and GIS mapping tool (QGIS); 3D orthophoto (AGISOFT Photoscan ©); 3D modelers and BIM ( i.e. © Autodesk Autocad17 and REVIT17-18, Rhinoceros McNell © ) will be acquired by the students in order to manage the cloud scans; learning how to manage different formats and exchange (i.e. OBJ, SAT, RVT, IFC), object libraries and BIM-GIS remote accessible applications.
The objective is the management of the whole architectural complex and of its object based components (vault system, slab, ceiling, beam, vertical wall, pillar, arches, roof), enriched by the the information (i.e. material and construction technologies, stratigraphic units, chronological phases), that can be used for the different purposes: preventive conservation and planned maintenance, structural analysis and behavior (BIM-to-FEA), management of the object families and their aggregation for energy efficiency assessment with the contribution of all the courses of the Preservation Studio Lab.
The workshop in situ activity of the 2 courses (Preservation and Survey) includes:
- 2D-3D geometrical and architectural survey and modelling of the selected building/site;
- 2D-3D multi-temporal map representation using current and historic cartography;
- study of the dimensions and the proportions of the building and its context;
- study of the building and its context evolution;
- study of the building technology;
- analysis, identification and representation of the geometry and construction techniques of the constructive elements;
- characterization of the materials and of their decay, including surface material and decay mapping;
- evaluation of the building damage, including discontinuity and crack pattern survey, and mapping;
- investigation project and monitoring;
- conservation and reuse approaches and goals;
- preservation and management technical instruments and strategies.
The Course requires preliminary elements of the current theoretical debates on preservation, and of the traditional building technologies and decay processes.
The attendance to such lectures, as well all the class activities, is mandatory.