Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2017/2018
Scuola Scuola di Architettura Urbanistica Ingegneria delle Costruzioni
Docente Brumana Raffaella , Cazzani Alberta
Cfu 10.00 Tipo insegnamento Laboratorio

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Nome Sezione Insegnamento

Programma dettagliato e risultati di apprendimento attesi

PRESERVATION - Alberta Cazzani


The course develops the issues related to the preservation and conservation of architectural heritage, examining the evolution of historic preservation in Europe as a grown cultural process: from the protection of few monumental works of architectures to the preservation of urban districts, and indeed whole historic towns, cultural landscapes and historic sites.

Because of new perspective of the value of the past, the preservation domain is being enlarged by a radical increase in the types of artefacts being considered worthy of protection and conservation: in addition to monumental high-style architecture - traditionally the preservation concern - whole new categories of sites are now recognized as equally meritorious: cultural and natural landscapes, historic towns and villages, vernacular and industrial structures, etc.

The course analyses some significant restoration, conservation, or rehabilitation projects concerned historic buildings and districts and examines the current preservation approaches, techniques and treatments, focused on conserving the historic stratification of the architectural heritage and defining compatible reuses.

The first part of the Course provides methodological and theoretical background, starting from the question of origins, legitimacy and validity of the discipline of restoration. The theoretical framework of conservation is outlined through its historical conceptual development, the ideas of the main protagonists (E.E. Viollet le Duc, J. Ruskin and W. Morris, C. Boito, L. Beltrami, A. Riegl, G. Giovannoni, M.Dezzi Bardeschi, etc.) and the definition of strategic keywords as “monument”, “heritage”, “built environment”, “preservation”, “restoration” and “conservation”. Such keywords compose the core concepts of the discipline.

The workshop focuses on the conservation problems and treatments of historic heritage studying a building/a site, starting from a survey and a diagnosis project. In order to fulfil this issue, the main building materials and technologies will be presented, as well as their pathologies and structural problems.

It will be considered also the current Italian preservation law and various documents - “Charters” and recommendations - that have, at national and international level, a decisive effect on the preservation/management criteria adopted by public and private agencies.

Preservation goal is to prevent decay and neglecting, and within this objective, it also includes mitigation of the aggressive environment, maintenance, but also the management of the possible uses and new functional requirements taking into account the scale problems, impact and meaning (monument, historical, consolidated city, the cultural landscape).

Furthermore, lectures improve the students’ knowledge to apply in the survey and in the project to develop in the second part of the workshop. The lectures describe the methods to collect information, to study in depth the building and the relationship between material characteristics, environment and decay and the following intervention strategies, including monitoring and maintenance. These methods range from historical-archive research to the direct analysis and survey of the building.

The direct and detailed inspection of the building characteristics outlines the present state of the building; the characteristic features of the construction techniques and structure; the stratification that has occurred through the several variations in building techniques and materials over time; the level of decay in both the surface materials and the eventual damage of the structure; and techniques of conservation.

The workshop activity will include a direct survey of a historic building proposed by the teachers and a planning activity. Geometrical, material and surface damage survey, historic evolution, study of the structure and of the building characteristics, environment relationships will be considered in the analysis in order to define a preservation and re-use project.

The second phase of the workshop includes:

•geometrical and architectural survey of the selected building/site;

•study of the dimensions and the proportions of the building

•study of the building evolution;

•study of the building technology;

•characterization of the materials and of their decay, including surface material and decay mapping;

•evaluation of the building damage, including discontinuity and crack pattern survey;

•investigation project and monitoring;

•conservation and reuse approaches and goals;

•preservation technical instruments and strategies.

The Course requires preliminary elements of the current theoretical debates on preservation, and of the traditional building technologies and decay processes.



 Innovative integrated surveying techniques based on laser-scanning (TLS), multispectral 3D-2D photogrammetric survey (i.e. RGB images, Thermal IR images and NIR images), and direct surveying, devoted to 2D-3D representation, HBIM and 3D orthoimage, will be explained during the course and experimented on site.

Simplified techniques as rectified image merging and panoramic views generation will be faced too for the heritage-landscape-built environment documentation purposes together with Micro-drone Surveying potentials and integration with the terrestrial on site techniques.

Particularly, the geometric survey will be oriented to the knowledge representation and to the content comprehension and interpretation of the arte-fact, through the co-relation of the geometry its-self together with the construction technologies and the material analysis carried out by the other courses of the Laboratory.  

HBIM (Historical Building Information Model) introduction to use and manage such information will be explained in order to experiment 3D Object content models augmented by the different information coming from different disciplines for the management of the architectural heritage within a multidisciplinary framework.

The 3D object modeling and the HBIM generation will be applied  by the students on the selected case study.  Different modeler and BIM ( © Autodesk Autocad17, Autodesk REVIT17-18, Rhino) sw will be tested by the students in order to manage the cloud scans, 3D ortho-image (AGISOFT Photoscan ©) use IFC exchange format and the object libraries, in an interoperable work environment for the different finalization of the design project with a critical point of view. 

The objective is the management of the whole architectural complex and of its Object based components (vault system, slab, ceiling, beam, vertical wall, pillar, arches, roof), enriched by the the information (i.e. material and construction technologies, stratigraphic units, chronological phases, that can be used for the different purposes: preventive conservation and planned maintenance, structural analysis and behavior (BIM-to-FEA), management of the object families and their aggregation for energy efficiency assessment  with the contribution of all the courses of the Preservation Studio Lab.

Further bibliographical references may be provided with regard both to the case study and to the theme chosen for the student’s individual examination.


Note Sulla Modalità di valutazione

The course will include theoretical lectures, planning practices, preservation surveys, on site visits.

Students must attend all lessons, onsite visits and surveys.

The attendance of the on site activities is possible only after the following of the on-line Basic Course on Safety and the mandatory submitting of the final certificate.

 The on site work and the design activity are organised in small groups and will be backed up by milestone workshops where students will present their own material, underlining the personal questions and the reflections linked to the lecture themes, their own study of the class references.

 The attendance to such lectures, as well all the class activities, is mandatory.

 The final oral test will focus on the project developed in group and on the topics discussed during the classes and on the related bibliography. It will include the discussion on the theoretic background and on the survey and planning activities developed during the year in group. Each student must demonstrate a knowledge of all the theoretical topics, showing the relationships between the class lectures and the former courses.

The focus of the oral exam will cover the issues of the lessons and the bibliography and also the discussion of the student’s research.

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaM.Boriani, A.Cazzani, Cultural Heritage Preservation in Italy, Editore: Oemme, Anno edizione: 2014

in G.Casnadi (edited by), The Politecnico di Milano in Armenia, Oemme edizioni, Venezia, 2014, pp. 33-42

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaM.Petzet, Principles of preservation: An introduction to the International Charters for Conservation and Restoration 40 years after the Venice Charter. , Editore: ICOMOS, M¼nchen, Anno edizione: 2004, Fascicolo: pp. 7-29 https://www.icomos.org/venicecharter2004/petzet.pdf

In: AA.VV., International Charters for Conservation and Restoration. Monuments & Sites, I

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativade la Torre, Marta, editor, Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage: Research Report, Editore: Editore: The Getty Conservation Institute, Anno edizione: 2002 http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/pdf_publications/assessing.pdf
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaCultural Heritage Policy Documents (The Getty Conservation Institute website) http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/research_resources/charters.html#1960
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaeditors S. Musso, L. De Marco, Teaching Conservation/Restoration of Architectural Heritage , Anno edizione: 2008, ISBN: 2-930301-35-X

Proceedings of the Conference supported by EC in the framework of the Socrates Programme

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaAA.VV., The Athens Charter for the Restoration of Historic Monuments , Anno edizione: 1931 http://www.icomos.org/en/charters-and-texts/179-articles-en-francais/ressources/charters-and-standards/167-the-athens-charter-for-the-restoration-of-historic-monuments
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaAA.VV., The Venice Charter - 1964, International Charter for the conservation and restoration of monuments and sites , Anno edizione: 1964 http://www.icomos.org/charters/venice.pdf
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaAA.VV., The Declaration of Amsterdam , Anno edizione: 1975 http://www.icomos.org/en/charters-and-texts/179-articles-en-francais/ressources/charters-and-standards/169-the-declaration-of-amsterdam
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaL. Binda, A. Saisi, Knowledge of the building, on site investigation and connected problems, Editore: Reluis, Anno edizione: 2009, ISBN: 978-88-89972-16-8 http://www.reluis.it/CD/ReLUIS-EC8/pdf/17_EC8-ReLUIS.pdf
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaICOMOS - Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration patterns http://www.icomos.org/publications/monuments_and_sites/15/pdf/Monuments_and_Sites_15_ISCS_Glossary_Stone.pdf
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaN.Stanley-Price and Joseph King (edited by),, Conserving the authentic, Editore: ICCROM Conservation Studies n.10, Rome, Anno edizione: 2009 http://www.iccrom.org/ifrcdn/pdf/ICCROM_ICS10_JukkaFestchrift_en.pdf

ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property),

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaJukka Jokilehto, Thought towards an International Approach to the Conservation of Cultural Property, D. Phil Thesis, Editore: The University of York, England, Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, Anno edizione: 1986 http://mestrado-reabilitacao.fa.utl.pt/disciplinas/jaguiar/jukkajokilehto1986historyofconservation.pdf

(PDF format 2005)

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaCultural Heritage and Landscape Italian Preservation Code, Il Nuovo Codice dei Beni Culturali e del Paesaggio, DL 42/2004 http://www.eui.eu/Projects/InternationalArtHeritageLaw/Italy.aspx
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaThe European Landscape Convention - 2000 http://www.darc.beniculturali.it/ita/paesaggio/convenzione.htm
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaLa Convenzione Europea del Paesaggio, Firenze, 2000 http://www.darc.beniculturali.it/ita/paesaggio/convenzione.htm
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaEnglish Heritage on line pubblications http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/publications/

i.e.:Guidelines and Standard; Guidelines and Standard: 3d Laser Scanning For Heritage Advice And Guidance To Users On Laser Scanning In Archaeology And Architecture (2 edition, 2011: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/publications/3d-laser-scanning-for-heritage/; Informed Conservation

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaBedford Jon, Heather Papworth eds., Measured and Drawn - Techniques and practice for the metric survey of historic buildings - 2. ed.: , Editore: Swindon UK, English Heritage, Anno edizione: 2009, ISBN: 9781848020474 http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/publications/measured-and-drawn/measured-and-drawn.pdf

(available on the web in .pdf format)

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaJon Bedford and others, Metric Survey Specifications for Cultural Heritage, Editore: Swindon UK, English Heritage, Anno edizione: 2009, ISBN: 9781848020382 https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/publications/metric-survey-specification/metric-survey-specific-for-cultural-heritage.pdf

(available on the web in .pdf format)

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaEnglish Heritage (ed.),, Practical Building Conservation, Editore: Ashgate Publishing, Anno edizione: 2012

2012-2013, ten volumes, (Mortars, Renders and Plasters, Stone,Timber, 2012)

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaD.ORENI, R. BRUMANA, A.GEORGOPOULOS, B. CUCA, HBIM for conservation and management of built heritage: towards a library of vaults and wooden beam floors,, Editore: XXIV International CIPA Symposium,, Anno edizione: 2013 http://cipa.icomos.org/fileadmin/template/doc/STRASBOURG/ANNALS/isprsannals-II-5-W1-215-2013.pdf

in: ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume II-5/W1, 2013 XXIV International CIPA Symposium, pp. 205-221

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaF. Remondino, Heritage Recording and 3D Modeling with Photogrammetry and 3D Scanning, Anno edizione: 2011

In Remote Sensing, 2011, 3(6), pp. 1104-1138;

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaF. Rinaudo, L. Bornaz, and P. Ardissone, 3D High accuracy survey and modelling for Cultural Heritage Documentation and Restoration, Editore: Archaeolingua Hun, Anno edizione: 2007

In Vast 2007 - Future Technologies to Empower Heritage Professionals, Brighton (UK), 26-29 Nov 2007, pp. 19-23;

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaR.BRUMANA, D.ORENI, L.VAN HECKE, L.BARAZZETTI, M.PREVITALI, F.RONCORONI, R.VALENTE, Combined geometric and thermal analysis from UAV platforms for archaeological heritage documentation, Editore: CIPA, Anno edizione: 2013 http://cipa.icomos.org/fileadmin/template/doc/STRASBOURG/ANNALS/isprsannals-II-5-W1-49-2013.pdf

IN:ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume II-5/W1, 2013 XXIV International CIPA Symposium, pp.49-54

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaD.K.Smith, M.Tardif, Building Information Modeling: A Strategic Implementation Guide for Architects, Engineers, Constructors, and Real Estate Asset Managers, Editore: John Wiley & Sons, Anno edizione: 2009
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaMario Docci, Diego Maestri, Manuale di rilevamento architettonico e urbano, Editore: Laterza, Anno edizione: 2009
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaStefano Musso, Recupero e restauro degli edifici storici. Guida pratica al rilievo e alla diagnostica, Editore: EPC LIBRI, Anno edizione: 2016

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schedaincarico v. 1.6.8 / 1.6.8
Area Servizi ICT