Content and objectives of the course
The course covers the electricity generation in modern power plants, focusing in particular on the inherent relation among working fluids, thermodynamic cycles and plant equipment. Thermodynamic, economical, management, environmental, and strategic aspects are addressed. Despite most of the course is dedicated to large-scale fossil-fueled centralized power plants, other technologies, such as Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and micro-cogeneration, are outlined. The goal is providing the students with the knowledge and competence to understand deeply, design on paper (that is in a simplified manner) as well as at the computer (that is in an accurate manner), and improve current and future power plants. The course is designed for those students who already possess good competences in energy systems.
Description of the course topics
1. Working fluids: Thermodynamic properties. Thermodynamic properties of ideal gases; real fluids (vapors and liquids); influence on the design of turbomachines, heat exchanger, and power cycle (conventional and unconventional cycles, open and close cycles).
2. Power cycles: Second-law analysis. Second-law analyses (energy and entropy balances) of diverse power cycles (open and close, fossil and renewable); physical meaning of entropy; choice of the heat source reservoir.
2.a. Advanced steam cycles: historical evolution of pulverized-coal power plants; ultra-supercritical cycles; emission abetment, control logics and plant management; second-law analysis and future developments; clean coal technologies.
2.b. Advanced gas turbines and combined cycle: historical evolution of gas turbines; combined cycles: state of the art and trends; second-law analysis and future developments; generalized theory of closed cycles.
2.c. Closed gas cycles: applications; generalized theory; analysis of the recuperator; partial-load management; full-load and partial-load efficiency.
2.d. Nuclear power plants: overview of nuclear reactor; choice of nuclear source, moderating fluid and cooling fluid; choice of operational parameters for diverse technologies (water- and gas-cooled).
3. Turbomachinery: One-dimension analysis. Stage optimization: free variable, objective function and constraints; velocity triangles and limits related to transonic and supersonic flows; effect of geometrical parameters on stage efficiency; similitude theory parameters and influence of the working fluid on the geometry.
The course comprises lectures, computer lab hours (developing own codes or employing existing codes) on specific projects, numerical exercise hours, and technical visits at equipment manufacturers and/or power plants.
Recommended: M.J. Moran, H.N. Shapiro, D.D. Boettner, M.B. Bailey. Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics, 8th Edition SI Version. ISBN: 978-1-118-96088-2. John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
Suggested for the technology description of modern power plants: P. Kiameh. Power Generation Handbook. 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2011.
On top of the previous textbooks, class notes will be given at the end of each topic, presentations will be published out during classes and specific readings will be suggested at the beginning of each topic.