The course is divided in two moduli:
a) Chemistry and Materials for Energy
b) Chemistry and Materials for Environment
First Modulus: Chemistry and Materials for Energy
The course deals with materials for energy, it will be about different technologies for energy production (i.e. solar energy, wind energy), for production of biofules, for transportation and for energy efficiency (i.e. buildings, lighting, materials availability and recycling) and for energy storage.
1. Materials for electrochemical devices for energy production and storage: batteries, fuel cells and supercondensators.
2. Solar Energy: solar radiation, materials for solar heating plant
3. Photovoltaic devices: inorganic and organic semiconductors, photo- electrochemistry.
4. Materials for thermal insulating: synthesis and production; traditional materials, natural materials and meta-materials.
5. Meso- e nano-porous materials: clays, zeolites, molecular sieve, carbon nanotubes, activated carbons. Properties, synthesis and industrial applications.
6. Liquid and solid fuels: production and storage.
7. Piezoelectric Materials for Energy Harvesting
More information: 1st lecture of the course, where the course presentation and more details on final evaluation will be given.
Reference textbook for the topics of the course is:
Ginley D. S. and Cahen D., Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Anno edizione: 2012, ISBN: 978-1-107-00023-0
Slides will be supplied during the course.
personal projects ppt presentation and discussion (compulsory) and written test on course topics
Second Modulus: Chemistry and Materials for Environment:
This modulus has two main goals: 1) to promote a deep understanding of the computational structure of the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology; 2) to apply this methodology to evaluate the sustainability of materials and processes. In pursuing these goals special attention will be paid to the definition and construction of systems of environmental impact indicators to be used in the assessment procedure. A consistent portion of the course will be devoted to the application of the LCA methodology to representative real life cases. Exercise sessions will be mainly quantitative; no specific numerical skills are required.
1. Life Cycle Analysis and Life Cycle Thinking: historical background, regulation, procedures, applications. Calculation methodology, databases and technical software. Sustainability assessment: introductory concepts.
2. Ecoindicators: pollutant diffusions in the environment, mesurement methods, environmental and damage impact category, impact quantification, exergetic approach.
3. Industrial processes for materials productions: case studies (i.e. cement, polymeric materials, metallic materials and ceramic materials).
4. Materials End-of-Life: open and closed-loop recycling, re-use, waste-to-energy process, waste management processes.
Reference textbooks for the topics of the course are:
- W. Klöpffer and B. Grahl, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) - A Guide to Best Practice, Wiley-VCH, 2014
- M.F. Ashby, Materials and the Environment - Eco-informed materials choice, Elsevier, 2013
Note that only a portion of these books will be afforded during the course.
Further reading for people interested in the topics are:
- H. Baumann, A-M. Tillman, The hitch hiker’s guide to LCA, Edizioni Studentlitteratur, AB, Lund, 2004.
- International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook, free download from the website: http://lct.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
- R. Heijungs, S. Suh, The computational structure of life cycle assessment, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2002.
- D.T.Allen, D.R.Shonnard, Green Engineering, Prentice Hall, New York, 2002
- M.B.Hocking, Handbook of Chemical Technology and Pollution Control, Academic Press, San Diego, 1998.
- M.Kutz, Environmentally conscious materials and chemicals processing, J. Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2007
All these books are available for consultation at all times in the laboratory of the research group headed by the professor.
Slides and exercises will be supplied under separate cover during the course.
The student will be required:
- to solve numerically a very simplified example of LCA
- to handle some introductory concepts on materials selection and process assessment in terms of environmental sustainability.