Main objectives and contents of the course
The course aims at two basic objectives:
1) review relevant basic principles and tools for the analysis of energy conversion systems
2) develop the capability to analyze, model and assess the performance of conventional as well as advanced systems for the production of electricity, heat, and refrigeration power
Among the energy conversion technologies, particular emphasis will be given to steam cycles, gas turbines and combined cycles, since they account for essentially all the electricity now generated by central power stations and are likely to maintain such role in the future.
Description of topics covered by the course
Energy scenario: seminar giving an overview of world energy demand, production, expected evolution.
Fuels and combustions: Basic properties of fossil fuels, stoichiometry and energy balance of combustion reactions, evaluation of parameters relevant for the assessment of the performance of fossil fuel-fired energy systems.
Pollutant formation and abatement: Kinetics of pollutant formation in combustion processes (CO, NOx, HC, PM). Basic principles of primary and secondary abatement technologies for steam cycles and gas turbines.
Steam Cycles: Basic thermodynamic features and configuration. Regeneration and reheat. Optimization of operating parameters. Interaction between cycle parameters, scale and turbo-machine performance. Architecture and basic issues of steam generators. Material issues. Modern Ultra-Super-Critical plants.
1st and 2nd Law analysis: Energy balances of energy conversion systems. Fundamentals of 2nd Law analysis. Applications to the basic processes encountered in energy conversion systems. Reactive systems and combustion.
Gas turbines and combined cycles: Basic thermodynamic features and configuration of Joule cycles. Regeneration, intercooling and reheat. Choice of cycle parameters vs type of duty and application. Material issues and blade cooling. Motivation and basic features of combined cycle configuration. Heat Recovery Steam Generators.
Economic analysis: Basic approach and tools to evaluate the cost of electricity. Comparative analysis of most relevant fossil fuel-based and renewable-source-based power plants.
Heat exchangers & steam generators: Architecture, basic features and issues of the heat exchangers utilized in large energy conversion systems. Case study on heat rejection by a large power plant.
Cogeneration: Meaning and motivation of cogeneration. Applications to steam cycles, gas turbine and combined cycles, internal combustion engines. District heating applications. Performance indexes.
Refrigeration cycles and heat pumps: Inverse thermodynamic cycles. Choice of working fluids and configuration. Multi-level arrangement.