096259 – MEDICAL INFORMATICS
Mission Medical Informatics is an interdisciplinary subject, involving Information and Communication Technology, that combines Life and Health Sciences with Computers Science, Management, Engineering and Statistics. It aims at helping to solve situations in management of care processes, bio-medical and drug research, medical and clinical decision making.
096257 – MEDICAL INFORMATICS 
Objectives and topics
In the course Medical Informatics , the basic topics of health-care information and communication technologies are described for both the clinical and the bio-medical research settings.
Description of the main topics
Electronic Health Records.
The structures of Electronic Health Records (EHRs), also for hospital departments; Similarities and differences of EHRs; The data types involved in EHRs – from alphanumerical fields to digital images; How different kinds of data are used to support medical decisions.
Clinical and Medical Databases
Definitions of Datum, Field, Record, File, Database, Database Management System (DBMS). Relational Algebra. Logical Data Models: Hierarchical data model, Network data model, Relational data model, Object-Orientated data model. Entity-Relationship diagrams. The meanings of the null value of attributes. Data base design methodology: conceptual design and logical design, translation of logical design to database schema.
Examples of clinical and medical databases.
Medical terminologies, dictionaries, and ontologies. The description of medical terminology, dictionaries and their structures; ontologies for Bio-Medicine. Some of dictionaries used in EHRs: Diagnosis related Groups (DRG), International Classification of Disease (ICD-9-CM). The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).
Medical digital libraries. Principles of design, developing and usage of Medical digital libraries. The PubMed/ Medline database of the US National Library of Medicine. Examples of queries for Bio-Medical engineering and Clinical engineering.
Bio-image Archives. Principles of design, developing and usage of bio-images archives. Searching and image retrieval methods for bio-images archives. The example of the Visible Human Project of the US National Library of Medicine.
Elements of computer networking.
Basics on layer protocols, ISO/OSI and TCP/IP protocols. Classifications of computer networks. Elements of internetworking.
Protection of Medical Data.
Basic concepts on security and privacy for clinical data. Example of hacker violations. Basic concepts on cryptography and related algorithms.
Telemedicine and telehealth
Basics, a paradigm and a manifesto on telemedicine and e-Health. Description of telemedicine services and significant projects.
Standards for Medical Informatics
Definition of standard and standard lifecycle. Description of Standard Organizations for the Medical Informatics and the Electrical fields at Italian, European and International level. Examples of standards for the Medical Informatics field: the standard for Blood Transfusion Services, the standard proposal for Vital Signs Information, the Digital Image and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard.
096258 – MEDICAL INFORMATICS 
Objectives and topics
In the course Medical Informatics , the basic processes of health-care environment and the process modelling methodology are described for both the clinical and the bio-medical research settings.
Description of the main topics
Principles of Medical Informatics
Definition of the theoretical basic concepts of Medical Informatics: the model , the information, the systems and the information systems.
The definition of “process”
Definition of the general concept “process” and in particular the basic processes of the healthcare environment. An overview to the clinical and organizational processes to support the clinical pathway of the patient. Scenarios of health organization and the needs of information and communication. International Guidelines and Clinical pathways.
The importance of process modeling to monitor, control and continuously improve e-health processes. The object oriented modeling is presented together with its basic elements and concepts. A comprehensive methodology to model e-health processes by means of domain analysis, conceptual and logical modeling.
The modeling language Unified Modeling Language (UML)
The UML is introduced with its diagrams and their use. The UML use is presented in the modeling of a system software architecture and in the visualization, specification and implementation of healthcare processes.
Modeling of simple and complex healthcare processes in UML
Simple modeling examples are presented such as the Italian CUP process used to book medical examinations, the process of reception in the emergency department (triage). The process of the rehabilitation of stroke patients is chosen as a complex process to be modelled. The modeling includes the identification of the different process phases; the taxonomy of the actors involved and definition of their roles and responsibilities; the modeling of each model phase; the modeling of process exceptions.
Evidence based Health Informatics
Introduction to evidence-based medicine and clinical protocols; the decision making process supported by information systems; randomized controlled clinical trials and meta-analysis as facilitators towards the progress in the field. Health Technology Assessment.
Activities in the laboratory
The activities in the laboratory equipped with personal computers are common to the two modules “1 – Instruments”(Medical Informatics ) and “2 – Processes” (Medical Informatics ) that compose the integrated course and aim at developing an elective project on “Medical Informatics” subjects.