Teaching objectives and expected learning results
The course deals about the development and use of the latest engineering methods for high-fidelity simulations of surgical and interventional treatments of the cardiovascular system. Applications are related to real-world goals that arise in the clinical scenario, and are mainly related to the optimization of surgical/interventional procedures, the evaluation of surgical/prosthetic device performances and, importantly, the training of clinicians towards a better understanding and execution of complex procedures.
Attendees are expected to gain an integrated vision, encompassing advanced experimental methods, advanced computational methods, and their combination.
Section 1. Introductory concepts and motivations.
1.1. General requirements of a simulation environment for procedure optimization, device testing and/or training.
1.2. Traditional in-vivo animal testing and related limitations.
1.2. The current regulatory scenario.
Section 2. Experimental laboratory platforms.
2.1. Design specifications and methods for the development of mock circulatory loops.
2.2. Brief review of lumped-parameter modelling and its use in pulsatile hydrodynamic design.
2.3. The evolution from conventional test apparatuses to realistic phantoms.
2.4. Critical design of active and passive systems using ex-vivo anatomical samples.
2.5. Criteria for the practical setting-up and use of mock loops and phantoms in the laboratory: matching high-fidelity with practical goals.
Section 3. In-silico virtual phantoms.
3.1. Introduction to numerical modelling approaches.
3.2. Brief review of large strain theory and constitutive modeling for cardiovascular tissues.
3.3. Geometrical reconstruction of cardiovascular structures from medical imaging.
3.4. Realistic modeling of boundary conditions.
3.5. Criteria for the implementation of numerical models of surgical devices and procedures: matching high-fidelity with practical goals.
Section 4. Integration of experimental and computational methods.
4.1. Criteria for setting up integrated studies exploiting the complementarities of the two approaches.
4.2. Techniques for data integration: critical matching of quantitative information from different approaches.
4.3. The use of experiments for validation of the models: analysis of real-world case studies.
4.4. The use of models for interpreting experimental data: analysis of real-world case studies.
Tutorials and other activities
Class tutorials deal about the application to cases belonging to the real clinical world, including the simulation of recent catheter-based, minimally invasive and reparative cardiovascular procedures.
Laboratory visits are provided for, with practical demonstrations of real experimental and computational procedures.
Seminars will be given by professionals from the industrial and clinical arena.