This course explains the chemical and plant aspects of processes for the biomass exploitation, the use of raw materials suitable for environment protection and safety. The constrain of a chemical production independent from fossil resources, necessitates the use of renewable raw materials that require new technologies and, today, a continuous applied and basic research.
The arguments are exposed following the typical scheme of a chemical industry course (product relevance, market, process and plant) and are listed in the following
1.Energy resources. After the comparison between the fossil and the renewable energy sources attention is pointed on the use of the green sources for chemicals and fuels.
2.Oleochemistry. The biomass properties have been firstly described. Then the oleo chemistry sector is examined with attention on the chemical transformations of vegetable and animal oils. Fuel (biodiesel)can be obtained thought trans-esterification reaction, esterification reaction with different technologies. The hydrogenation reaction is described in the food sector. A great part is dedicated to the catalysis aspects.
3. Biomass. The argument occupies a large, central in the course, chapter. It concern the biomass conversion processes. Existing processes and prospective forecast from research data for processes and plants. The synergic mix of the known unit operations and new advanced technologies are explored.
4.Biomass derivatives. Using industrial chemistry items and materials science ones, materials derivate from biomass (cellulose as first) for many industrial sectors are illustrated (pharma sector, food, surfactant, additives etc.)
5. Biopolymer and paper. In the biomass conversion sector biopolymers are taken under consideration. PLA, PHB as major product obtained by chemical and fermentative processes.
6. Green solvent. The great importance of green solvent is due to their large use. The emission of volatile organic compounds is largely due to the solvent and many directives limit their use. New solvent are needed. This chapter is dedicated to new types of green solvent.