This module provides information on climatology, which are the factors that create an area's climate, and the sources and uses of climate information.
The climate system is a complex, interactive system consisting of the atmosphere, land surface, snow and ice, oceans and other bodies of water, and living things. The atmospheric component of the climate system most obviously characterises climate; climate is often defined as ‘average weather’. Climate is usually described in terms of the mean and variability of temperature, precipitation and wind over a period of time, ranging from months to millions of years.
1. Factors that determine earth’s climate
Relationship between climate change and weather
2. The greenhouse effect
Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases during the industrial era caused by human activities
Which are the main greenhouse gases?
3. Changes in Human and Natural Drivers of Climate
Contribution of human activities to climate change and how do they compare with natural influences
4. Observations of Changes in Climate Atmosphere and Surface
How are temperatures on earth changing?
How is precipitation changing?
Change in extreme events: heat waves, droughts, floods and hurricanes
Warming of the 20th century: can it be explained by natural variability?
5. Oceans and Sea Level
6. Snow, Ice and Frozen Ground
Is the amount of snow and ice on the earth decreasing?
Causes of the ice ages and other important climate changes before the industrial era
7. Projections of Future Changes in Climate
Models used to make projections of future climate change
8. Effects on environment
How hydrological and energetic systems will be influenced?
Which are possible solutions?
Hydrology is the scientific study of the waters of the earth. This module examines the properties of water as well as its planetary occurrence, distribution, and movement.
1. Introduction to the Hydrologic Cycle
What is Hydrology?
What is the Hydrologic Cycle?
Accounting Budget Approach for Hydrology
Snow and Ice: snowpack characteristics and snowmelt
Our fluctuating water supply
Variations in stream flow
3. Atmospheric Water
Condensation and Precipitation
4. Surface Water
Water Yield and Flow
6. City water
Water purification and distribution
How sewage and wastes are treated
7. Stream flow and the river channel
Drainage basins and watersheds
8. How water facts affect you and me
What constitutes water conservation?
Water facts and the law
Water facts and their use
9. Water for food and energy
Water, food, climate and energy for sustainability, security and development