Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2016/2017
Scuola Scuola di Architettura Urbanistica Ingegneria delle Costruzioni
Docente Cocchiarella Luigi
Cfu 8.00 Tipo insegnamento Monodisciplinare

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Nome Sezione Insegnamento
Arc - Urb - Cost (1 liv.)(ord. 270) - MI (1149) URBANISTICAUPAAZZZZ095989 - FUNDAMENTALS OF REPRESENTATION

Programma dettagliato e risultati di apprendimento attesi



As a basic course, the monographic course of Fundamentals of representation takes place in the first semester of the first year of the Bachelor, providing the theoretical, methodological and operational disciplinary bases, and assuming the architectural, urban and territorial space as the main focus in relation to survey and analysis as well as to the design activity.

The course focuses on the fundamentals of the architectural representation; on the relationships among space, image, measuring, modelling; on the connections between geometrical structures and graphic devices. The course also emphasizes the role of projective principles and methods in generating analogue and digital images and models, as well as in visual perception and optical devices, in relation to their use in the architectural survey and in the architectural design.


Topic and Activities

The course, including theoretical lectures and applications, is strictly related to the course of representational techniques, starting in the same semester as a part of the architectural design studio.


Lectures and applications will focus on the following topics and stages:



_ Reading


Structural characteristics of architectural images and models. The projective and non-projective graphic forms: early introduction. Using graphic forms by manual drawing, in order to support, as early as possible the architectural design activities.


Applications: photographic images, architectural drawings, cartographies, maquettes, digital models: geometric and graphic analysis. Reproducing images by manual drawing, by tracing and by imitation. Generating qualitative schemes and diagrams, outlining additional projections by manual drawing. Observing shades and shadows from life and from images and pictures. Graphic outline of the human silhouettes.



_ Measuring


Drawing from life, early introduction. Real architectural configurations: observation, recognition and classification. Spatial dimensions and graphic scaled ratios: visual estimation. Generating topological and projective graphic schemes from life, by manual drawing. Metrical survey and graphic reconstruction: basic methods and techniques. Comparing analogue technical drawing and 2D CAD systems.


Applications: outlining true architectural shapes by sketches and simple schemes, appropriately combining various representational forms. Planning the survey campaign: deciding the set of pictures and drawings supporting the survey activities. Drawing schematic plans, elevations and front views of the whole space and of significant details, together with synthetic axonometric and perspective outlines. Recording metrical data: targeting and aligning points, detecting levels and metrical networks, plumbs taking. Graphic reconstructions by analogue technical drawing and by 2D CAD.



_ Projection


Deepening principles, and thorough examination of methods and procedures of the projective representation. Orthogonal and topographic projections: spatial setup and graphic reference system; representing shapes, shades and shadows; plan views, side and front views; combining front and section; graphic development. Axonometric: spatial setup, classification, graphic reference systems; representing shapes, shades and shadows; view, cut section, exploded view. Perspective: spatial setup, classification, graphic reference systems; view, cut section, exploded view. Homological relationships: early introduction. Introduction to 3D CAD visualizations.


Applications: representation of architectural spaces characterized by plane and curved surfaces. Descriptive program: quick planning of the set of visualizations by manual sketches; transcription of the planned views by traditional technical drawing, with pencil, ruler and compass on transparent paper. Visualization: training by 3D CAD systems.



_ Construction


Deepening homological relationships. Solving metrical problems and true-to-shape finding by means of homology. Intersecting configurations. Shades and shadows: intersection, homology. Solving simple topographic problems. Inverse perspective and photogrammetry: outlines. Solving metrical and formal problems by 3D CAD systems: Boolean operations, intersections, metrical data and true-to-shape finding. Getting metrical data from analogue and digital graphics. Setting metrical data for physical model making.


Applications: intersection between spatial configurations characterized by plane and curved surfaces. True-to-shape finding of the intersection outlines. Constructive program: quick planning of the set of constructions by manual sketches; transcription of the planned constructions by traditional technical drawing, with pencil, ruler and compass on transparent paper. Detecting projective structures into the photographic images. Assembling and disassembling spatial models using 3D CAD system. Recording and setting metrical data, preparing graphic templates for the physical model making.



_ Modelling


Mastering graphic representation. Integrating analogue, digital and physical codes of representation. Combining representational forms. Managing views, lights, shades, shadows, models, maquettes, animations, movies, pictures. Setting up representational materials according to the topic and to the stages of the workflow. Setup and the use of analogue and digital archives: basic outlines.


Applications: integrating the semester materials and work: sketches, drawings, models, maquettes. Work storage, digital recording and delivery.

Note Sulla Modalità di valutazione

The final evaluation will be individual, it will take place at the end of the semester and will be based on an oral test concerning the theoretical contents and on the examination of the work.


The evaluation aims to check the achievements of the following educational goals:


_ oral test: knowledge and understanding; making judgements; communication skills 

_ class work evaluation: applying knowledge and understanding; making judgements; learning skills; communication skills


Since students will be required to work in groups on specific tasks (i.e. measurements, model making, photography, workflow planning) the aptitude and the ability to work in team will be tested as well.


A digital copy of the work, including rough and fair copy of notes from lectures, drawings, models, animations, maquettes, pictures and movies, will be put on CD-ROM or DVD-ROM and delivered to the teacher one week before the exam.

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaR. Yee, Architectural Drawing. A visual compendium of types and methods, Editore: John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 3rd edition, Anno edizione: 2007
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaC.B. Mills, Designing with Models. A Studio guide to Making and Using Architectural Design Models, Editore: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey (and Canada), Anno edizione: 2005
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaM. Hemmerling, A. Tiggemann, Digital Design Manual, Editore: DOM Publisher, Berlin, Anno edizione: 2011
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaI.Medola, M.Petri, Free hand design. products, toys, jewels, vehicles, furniture..., Editore: Alinea, Firenze, Anno edizione: 2006

Italian and English

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaM.Langford, Basic Photography, Editore: Focal Press, Oxford and..., 1st edition 1965, Anno edizione: 2000
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaL. Cocchiarella, C. Casonato (editors), Seminario dei Laboratori di Rappresentazione, Editore: Maggioli, Milano, Anno edizione: 2012

Some English Text

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaHemmerling M., Graf M., Case Study Houses - Digitally Remastered, Editore: Spurbuchverlag, Baunach, Germany, Anno edizione: 2016

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