Ghost town Laboratory_ Badolato, Riace
“In 2016 in Italy there will be 1,650 ghost town", E. Torsello, Il Sole 24ore, 6.8.2008
“Migrants: 88,351 landed in 2016”, ANSA 25.07.2016
“Riace, the village that asks for more immigrants. And 40 Mayors from Calabria follow the example: stop the depopulation ”, La Repubblica, 15.04.2011
"Tourism, Italy is fifth in the world. In a year in our country 48 million tourists spent 33 billion", La Stampa 23.04.2015
“Badolato village for sale in Calabria”, D. Lanciano, Il Tempo, 7 October 1984
“Badolato, the charm of the old town attracts people from all over the world”, F. Laganà and G. Misticò, il Quotidiano del Sud, 24.02.2016
According to the report "1996-2016 Excellencies and ghost town in Italy of small towns”, released by Confcommercio and Legambiente, in Italy 1,650 small and medium-sized cities risk becoming ghost town by 2016 due to a phenomenon of desertification called "housing problems". In addition 4,395 municipalities will shed in poor conditions. The reason? Lack of services for people and companies, low birth rates and immigration, inability to attract new capital. Future ghost towns constitute one-fifth of Italian municipalities, amounting to one-sixth of the national territory. Resides there, at least for now, the 4.2% of the population, with 560 thousand residents over 65,20% more than the average Italian. Little chance of work employment, little social fluidity ..
The Italian ghost towns are part of an European (and American) phenomenon called Shrinking cities. A significant number of cities and regions currently face population decline, economic contraction, or both. The “greying of Europe”, where nearly a third of the population will be 65 year old or over by 2060, is increasing pressure on social services, urban infrastructure, and the labor supply. The trend is raising new concerns for planning and architectural design. For Central and Eastern European cities, the out-migration of young workers seeking better employment opportunities has made the equation even more difficult. As tax bases shrink, planners and politicians in the EU will need to attract and retain a younger workforce, in part by reforming immigration policy, and make the urban environment accessible for the elderly.
News reports tell us that 88.351migrants have arrived in Italy since the beginning of year 2016, both are political refugees, but also men and wemen seeking better economic conditions, more dignified.Today they live in Italy about 4 million foreigners,of which at least half a million illegal immigrants. Of almost 60 million inhabitants, it is 6.7% of the population. Proportionally, Italy is the country in the world that attracts more migrants. A swirling flow, unmanageable by the State, oriented by individual ethnic communities and their leaders, intermediaries between the country of origin and the ”Belpaese country” of reception or transit. In Italy they reside six major ethnic stocks of immigrants - largely composed of young, of which one out of ten born in Italy - from Romania, Albania, Morocco, China, Ukraine and the Philippines. All indicators confirm that given the need for industry, agriculture and services, our future depends on the integration of immigrants.
Italy is also crossed by other flows of people and capital, is in fact the world's fifth tourist destination for number of visitors. In 2015 were 48 million tourists who spent 35,7 billion euro. One of the most visited regions is Calabria, where foreign tourists come from Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Holland, Austria, Poland, England and France.
From the media headlines, we read that in Calabria depopulation factors of Southern Italy small town intersect the news of continuous landings on the coast of migrants fleeing from war and famine, as well as data of the growing economy linked to tourism and northern European real estate investments.
Here the small towns of Badolato and Riace, as Santa Caterina of the Ionian Sea, Guardavalle, Monasterace, Isca, Davoli, San Sostene, Soverato, Squillace are some of the Calabria 52 double towns on the Ionian coast, today in part depopulated (ghost towns). The reasons of abandonment of the villages since the 50 were either natural causes such as earthquakes, floods and landslides, such that human migration in search of work to the North Italy and abroad. The villages are situated on a hill and built in medieval times to escape the incursions of the Turkish conquerors. Up behind them stand the rugged mountains of the pre Calabrian Serre, the Apennines that in this region form the Sila National Park. In the 50s and 60s due to floods and landslides the Italian state did move the residents from villages a few kilometers along the Ionian coast, giving rise to the formation of double towns or marine, along Highway 106 Jonica (SS 106) that extends for 491 km from Reggio Calabria to Taranto.
Riace is an Italian municipality of 1,820 inhabitants in the metropolitan city of Reggio Calabria in Calabria. The town has risen to hit the headlines for the discovery, in 1972, of two Greek bronze statues of the Greek era, known today as the Riace Bronzes. Today at the National Museum of Reggio Calabria (project arch. Marcello Piacentini and equipping arch. Paolo Desideri, ABDR studio). Riace since 2004, has been the focus of immigrant reception policies. In 2016 more than 800 immigrants welcomed by the local community, supported by social policies that have been included in the workforce, contributing to the development of the economy of the village. Reception stories also tell by German filmmaker Wim Wenders here shot the film "Il Volo/The Flight" involving the mayor, residents and migrants. The mayor, Domenico Lucano in 2016 was cited among the top 50 world leaders (to 40th place) by Fortune magazine.
Badolato is a village of 3,157 inhabitants in the province of Catanzaro. Seriously damaged during its history by earthquakes (1640.1659 and 1783) Badolato was also hit in more recent times by a flood in 1951. On 7 October 1984 the village librarian wrote an article in the newspaper Il Tempo launching a provocation "Badolato village for sale in Calabria". From that moment the consciousness of the continuous agricultural decline of olive trees, vineyards, orchards and the abandonment of the more than 513 buildings on 1059 becomes an obsession and an opportunity for a revival of the village. Here began both welcoming policies towards Kurdish refugees, both the sale of the real estate to Swedish, British, Dutch, American tourists.
The close union of natural, archaeological and antropic aspects therefore, distinguishes the whole Riace-Badolato area as a unique landscape of a chain of double villages. A territorial opportunity that today needs new Strategies and Tools of Urbanism, architectural design and urban design for development. Also leaders in others Shrinking cities have attempted different strategies, with varying success, to reinvent their image and their economy around creative industries, a manufacturing renaissance, a sustainable tourism or the service sector.
The aim of the course will attempt to answer the following town planning design question: what vision, what tools and strategies we need to adopt for the enhancement of Badolato-Riace area? Which strategies and projects to recover, maintain and enhance the entire set of villages and landscapes for environmental, cultural, social and tourist purposes? In the goal of enhancing the area, what can be the design relation between the historical and archaeological remains, the agriculture and shepherding landscapes and the shrinking contemporary small towns? Should interventions be public or private? How you can involve the different populations and flows of refugees, tourists, residents for a new sharing economy and the care and management of the heritage? What are the consequences of reception policies and sustainable tourism and how can they be controlled or guided with planning and design?
The course will be organized as follows:
1_In the first part “Ghost town in my country”, students will start by comparing Badolato-Riace to other abandoned site and international case studies. The aim of this first investigation is to grow on specific knowledge and to build a first cultural and strategic reading of the topic. Students will start with an individual exercise and will be divided in 7 groups by the end of October, before the fieldtrip to Badolato, Riace ghost towns, the Calabria landscapes, the Reggio Calabria Museum of the of two Greek bronze and the sea shore.
2_In the second part students, divided in 7 groups, will progressively develop an operative material and a broad investigation and critical reading of Badolato-Riace and its territory with a bottom-up approach, that is by selecting one specific theme and working at multiple scales simultaneously. The production of this stratified system of knowledge will be interpreted and will drive the design phase. This period will end at the mid of November.
3_In the final part students will be asked to develop a site-specific urban planning projects, with a multi-scale and time-based programmatic strategy and a formal proposal. We expect from students to react to the ambitious course program with a project that is capable to interpret the multiple contemporary approaches to urban design, that is to build-up a consistent narrative in which landscape urbanism, open design guidelines, scenarios, cultural and architectural features may clearly emerge. By the beginning of January the class will establish a common date for the final exam in February.
The course will use several disciplinary skills, and in particular:
Urbanism leaded by prof. Isabella Inti
Furthermore the course will also use research tools and understanding of the area with photographic inquiry leaded by the photographer Filippo Romano.
First week, 6-7 Oct. – presentation of the Laboratory, explanation of the first Assignment
Second week, 13-14 Oct. introduction to the Laboratory design issues
Third week, 20-21 Oct. – Laboratory design issues
Fifth week, 3rd-6 Nov – Field Trip
4. EVALUATION MODE
First part | “Ghost town in my country” = 10
Second part | Investigation and site visit = 5
Third part | town planning project = 12
Third part | oral questions on the topics of the lectures and 1 book and 1 article (of your choice) = 3
E. Sereni, Storia del paesaggio agrario italiano, Roma-Bari,1961
Wolman, Abel, The metabolism of cities, Ed. Scientific American, 1965
V. Gregotti, Il territorio dell’architettura, Milano, 1966.
A. Rossi, L’architettura della città, Padova, 1966.
R. Venturi, D. Scott Brown, S. Izenour, Learning from Las Vegas, Cambridge, 1972
G. De Carlo, Architecture is Too Important to Leave to the Architects in: O. Bouman and R. van Toorn, The Invisible in Architecture, London 1994, 382-389
A. Geuze, WEST8 Landscape urbanism, 1995
R. Koolhaas, Whatever happened to urbanism?, in R. Koolhaas S,M,L,XL, New York, 1998
J. Corner,Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture, ed.Princeton, 1999
S. Boeri/Multiplicity, R. Koolhaas/Harvard project on the city, S. Kwinter, N. Tazi,H.U. Obrist, MUTATIONS, Barcelona, 2001
Multiplicity, USE-Uncertain States of Europe, Milan, 2003
M. Zardini, G. Borasi, I. Inti, L. Molo “ASFALTO. Il carattere della città”, ed. Electa, 2003
AAVV.“The construction of the project, International Competition Porta Nuova Gardens”,Ed. Alinea, 2004
M. Mohsen, C. Najle and Architectural Association, Landscape Urbanism: a Manual for the Machinic Landscape. Architectural Association London,2003
S. Boeri, A. Lanzani, D. Cologna,E. Granata,I. Inti,C. Novak, Esperienze e paesaggi dell’abitare, AIM Abitare Segesta, 2006
C. Waldheim, The Landscape Urbanism Reader, PrincetonArchitectural Press, New York 2006
P. Oswalt, T. Rieniets , “Atlas der schrumpfenden Städte/Atlas of Shrinking Cities”, ed. Hatje Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern, Sommer 2006
P. Oswalt , “Shrinking Cities, Vol. 2: Interventions” ed. Hatje Cantz Publishers, June 2006
N. Heynen, M. Kaika, E. Swyngedouw, In the Nature of Cities: Urban Political Ecology and the Politics of Urban Metabolism, Ed. Routledge, 2006, ISBN: 0415368286
B. Secchi, Prima lezione di urbanistica, ed. Laterza, 2007
A. Meroni, Creative communities. People inventing sustainable ways of living, Ed. Poli Press 2007
G. La Varra, M. Peran, F. Poli, F. Zanfi, POST-IT CITY. Ciutadts ocasionals, ed. CCCB Barcelona, 2008
Raumlabor Berlin, Acting in public, ed. Jovis Verlag, Berlin 2008
E. Pieterse, City Futures: Confronting the Crisis of Urban Development, Ed. Zed Books Ltd, 2008, ISBN: 1842775413
C. Padoa Schioppa, Transcalarità e adattabilità nel Landscape Urbanism, ed. Aracne, 2010
M. Giberti, A. Valenti” Archeonet. Archeologia, paesaggio, turismo”, ed. 22publishing, 2011
Architecture for Humanity, Design like you give a dam (2), Ed. Abrams, 2012
B. Steiner, “Superkilen a project by BIG, TOPOTEK1, SUPERFLEX”, ed. Arvinius+Orfeus Publishing, Stockholm/Oslo, 2013
I. Inti, P. Tamburelli, V. Pizzigoni, “A Reboot Scenario: the case study of Brindisi SIN area”, ed. Politecnico di Milano, 2013
I. Inti, C. Padoa Schioppa, P. Pellegrini, “Common Ground Laboratory: Prishtina”, Politecnico di Milano,2014
I. Inti, G. Cantaluppi, M. Persichino,”Temporiuso. Manuale per il riuso temporaneo di spazi in abbandono, in Italia”, ed. Altreconomia,2014
C. Bianchetti e AAVV, "Territori della condivisione. Una nuova città?", ed. Quodlibet, 2014
Topos 26 Internationale Bauausstellung Emscher Park / 1999
Lotus Navigator 02 – I nuovi paesaggi / 2001
Lotus Navigator 05 – fare l’ambiente / 2002
Lotus 128 Reclaiming Terrain / 2006
Topos 66 Landscape Strategies, T. Capatti, Metrobosco & Co /2009
Topos 71 -Landscape Urbanism
. This issue includes contributions from C.Waldheim, J.Corner, M. Mostafavi, A.Geuze, S. Drake, Kongjian Yu
, F. Steiner, D. Almy, 2010
Lotus 150 Landscape Urbanism / 2012
Lotus 153 Commons / 2014
Limes 6/2015, “Chi bussa alla nostra porta”
Articles and essays
I. Inti,“I giardini autorganizzati di una città partecipativa”and “Il Metrobosco”, in Il verde a Milano, edited by A. Castellano, G. Crespi, L. Toeschi, collana AIM, Ed. Abitare Segesta Cataloghi, 2007
I. Inti, Made in Mage: the challenge of temporary reuse practice to enable micro-economies, in Industrial Patrimony 26, Ed. TICCIH, 2011
I. Inti, “RE-USE: The construction of a Common Good trough the temporary Reuse of leftover urban setting”, in ZAWIA#00. CHANGE. Sept. 2012
P. Pellegrini, Recycling planning: 2 different positions, in Recycling city. Lifecycles, embodied energy, inclusion, edited by L. Fabian, E. Giannotti, P. Viganò, Giavedoni editore, Pordenone, 2012
T. Maheshwari “Redefining Shrinking Cities”, December 3, 2013 in Urban Fringe
L. Canali “Da dove vengono i migranti”, in Limes 6/2015