Risorse bibliografiche
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa
Scheda Riassuntiva
Anno Accademico 2016/2017
Scuola Scuola di Architettura Urbanistica Ingegneria delle Costruzioni
Docente Cazzani Alberta , Previtali Mattia , Saisi Antonella Elide
Cfu 14.00 Tipo insegnamento Laboratorio

Corso di Studi Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato Da (compreso) A (escluso) Nome Sezione Insegnamento

Programma dettagliato e risultati di apprendimento attesi

The Architectural Preservation Studio concerns the analysis of the Architectonic Heritage and of its values aimed at its preservation. The Studio wants to explain architectural preservation theory and practice by a multidisciplinary approach, including information from several subjects. A conservative choice is not the result of an automatic process but it grows with the increasing knowledge of the building within a complex “cultural project”. Preservation strategies, in fact, can be successful only after a theoretical analysis of the building cultural and architectonic values but also after a deep knowledge of the building itself, of its geometry, its evolution in time, its materials, its building technique, its decay and damage.

Such several cultural contributions should be harmonized in order to reach the wide knowledge aimed at preservation strategies both of the building in its environment, by the evaluation of its characteristics and state of decay and of its functions to define preservation and maintenance strategies and set up compatible planning and function. An innovative aspect of the methodology is the merging and the harmonisation of the preservation requirements, resulting from the single building analysis, and the planning choices aimed at fulfilling preservation strategies in time and purpose of the action (project, process, planning, management), and the relationships with the architectural design, urban and regional (economic and social sciences).

In fact, preservation consists of action taken to prevent decay and neglecting, and within this objective, it also includes mitigation of the aggressive environment, maintenance, but also the management of the possible uses and new functional requirements taking into account the scale problems, impact and meaning (monument, historical, consolidated city, the cultural landscape).

The course develops the theoretic issues, examining the historic evolution of the subject through meaningful case histories.

One of the most important items, emerged in the past and got increasingly stronger in the last decades after failures of monumental buildings and earthquakes, is the role of knowledge as a fundamental basis of any repair and strengthening intervention. As much an intervention is required to be structurally effective, compatible with the existing, respectful of its constructive, historical, material characters, as much an articulated, deepen and inter disciplinary survey has to be carried out. The complexity of the subject requires a constant comparison between the building and the sources of data, the interdependency between design of the investigation and choice of the repair techniques, and continuity between prevision, execution and control of the intervention.

The technical challenges of historic building preservation not only involve finding possible vulnerability but also include addressing the safety action and damage mitigation within a minimal intervention strategy and maintenance.

In general, it is essential to determine the structural integrity in order to prevent damages or the danger of total or partial collapse, coupling on site testing and analytical interpretation.

The analyses should be capable of studying existing defects, their origin and relevance for the safety of the structure and defining the cases for which strengthening or repair are required. Furthermore, they should allow the understanding of the performance of the ancient structures to allow effective design with minimal strengthening or repair techniques where required and to assess their in-service performance and capacity improvements.

Methodological uncertainties from technical and conceptual viewpoint are related with the lack of addressed standards and recommendations capable of supporting a rigorous procedure.

The Workshop focuses on the conservation problems and treatments of historic heritage, starting from a diagnosis project. In order to fulfil this issue, the main building materials and technologies will be widely discussed, as well as their pathologies and structural problems. Diagnostic strategies and investigation instruments will be presented, as well as operative approaches to any study of an historic building.

The first part of the Course provides methodological and theoretical background, starting from the question of origins, legitimacy and validity of the discipline of restoration. The theoretical framework of conservation is outlined through its historical conceptual development, the ideas of the main protagonists (E.E. Viollet le Duc, J. Ruskin and W. Morris, C. Boito, L. Beltrami, A. Riegl, G. Giovannoni, C. Brandi, etc.) and the definition of strategic keywords as “monument”, “heritage”, “built environment”, “preservation”, “restoration” and “conservation”. Such keywords compose the core concepts of the discipline

The analysis is supplemented of the key points of the current Italian code concerning preservation principles, together with the various documents - “Charters” and recommendations - which have, at both national and international level, had a decisive effect on the criterion of intervention adopted by both public and private agencies.

Furthermore, lectures improve the students’ knowledge to apply in the survey and in the project to develop in the second part. The lectures describe the methods to collect information, to study in depth the building and the relationship between material characteristics, environment and decay and the following intervention strategies, including monitoring and maintenance. These methods range from historical-archive research to the direct analysis and survey of the building. The direct and detailed inspection of the building characteristics outlines the present state of the building; the characteristic features of the construction techniques and structure; the stratification which has occurred through the several variations in building techniques and materials over time; the level of decay in both the surface materials and the eventual damage of the structure; and techniques of conservation.

The geometrical survey of historic building is a fundamental aspect in order to plan each type of restoration/conservation activity. For this reason the course presents innovative survey techniques that can serve as the basis for further analysis. In particular the following techniques will be presented:

  • Photogrammetric survey;
  • Total Station survey; and
  • Laser scanning survey.

The theoretical and practical aspects of these techniques are covered during the course along with their application concerning the chosen case study. In particular, their peculiarities will be presented and discussed as well as their integration. Particular attention will be given in order to determine the most appropriate technique according to the defined aims in terms of final products, their accuracy, precision and scale.

The lectures also will involve the description of the materials and building techniques of the Architectural Heritage, including the affected pathologies, decay processes and the testing procedures. The aim is to provide students to any methodological instrument (theoretical and operating) they need to approach a global preservation project, starting from the analysis of the present state of preservation and characteristics of the building, building techniques and materials.

The second phase, which will be part of the student practice as well, includes:

•geometrical and architectural survey;
•study of the dimensions and the proportions of the building
•study of the building evolution;
•study of the building technology;
•characterization of the materials and of their decay, including surface material and decay mapping;
•evaluation of the building damage, including discontinuity and crack pattern survey;
•investigation project and monitoring;
•conservation and reuse approaches and goals;
•preservation technical instruments and strategies.

The on site practical work is an effective opportunity to compare the individual methodologies and instruments provided by the various disciplines.

This will involve not only the several direct surveys of the building but also the identification of the conservation and planning/design items emerged during the analysis e.g. in relation both to the use of space (in particular public use) and the norms and regulations that govern that use.


The workshop activities involve lectures on specific topics. Their aim will be not only to illustrate the context – the cultural frame of reference – for current reflections upon conservation but also to provide students robust background and guidelines necessary for their practical work. The attendance to such lectures, as well all the class activities, is mandatory.

The course program fulfil the necessity of develop the full knwledge and understanding of the topic, with making judgements capacity and applying knowledge thanks to the on site activity on a case history. Furthermore, the communication skills will be improved through the presentation of the current debate on Architectural Preservation; similarly, the learning skills will benefit and this would help the student to bridge toward future experience, like the PhD program on Preservation of the Architectural Heritage.



The aim of the Course is to provide students to any methodological instrument (theoretical and operating) they need to approach a global preservation project, starting from the analysis of the present state of preservation and characteristics of the building, to the repair or mitigation of the vulnerability, to the role of maintenance and, finally, to the evaluation of the possible building function and re-use specifically addressed by a detailed planning. The design solutions should increase the used value by minimal intervention, without alter the intrinsic values of the historic buildings.

Last but not least, the Course aims to create attitude respectful toward the diffused architectonic heritage – improperly called “minor” - important component of the built environment of the historic centres, most aggressed by unsuitable interventions.

Note Sulla Modalità di valutazione

The course will include theoretical lectures, planning practices, preservation surveys, on site visits.

Students must attend all lessons, onsite visits and surveys.

The attendance of the on site activities is possible only after the following of the on-line Basic Course on Safety and the mandatory submitting of the final certificate.

The workshop activity will include a direct survey of a historic building proposed by the teachers and a planning activity. Geometrical, material and surface damage survey, historic evolution, study of the structure and of the building characteristics, environment relationships will be considered in the analysis. This information will be at the base of the planning/design activity.

The field work and the design activity are organised in small groups and will be backed up by seminars in which students will present their own material, underlining the personal questions and the reflections linked to the lecture themes, their own study of the class references.

The final exam result merges both the evaluation of the developed project in group, both the oral and the written tests results. The mid term and final written tests will evaluate each student's knowledge and progress concerning the theoretical lesson topics.

The final oral test will focus on the project developed in group and on the topics discussed during the classes and on the related bibliography. It will include the discussion on the theoretic background and on the survey and planning activities developed during the year in group. Each student must demonstrate the knowledge and understanding of all the class topics, showing the relationships between the several class lectures and the former courses, as well. The oral test will evaluate the learning and communication skills of the student.

Furthermore, the students must demonstrate through the onsite work on a proposed historic building the capacity of applying the knowledge and understanding, with making judgements.

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaA. Saisi, Class notes and additional references
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaL. Binda, A.Saisi, C. Tiraboschi, Investigation procedures for the diagnosis of historic masonries,in Construction and Building Mat., Editore: Elsevier, Anno edizione: 2000, ISBN: 0095006180

in Construction and Building Materials Vol. 14, n.4, June 2000, pp. 199-233

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaBernard Feilden, Conservation of historic buildings , Editore: Elsevier : Architectural press, Anno edizione: 2003, ISBN: 0750658630
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaL. Binda, A. Saisi, Knowledge of the building, on site investigation and connected problems, Editore: Reluis, Anno edizione: 2009, ISBN: 978-88-89972-16-8 http://www.reluis.it/CD/ReLUIS-EC8/pdf/17_EC8-ReLUIS.pdf
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaL. Binda, A. Saisi, I.A.E. de Vent, R.P.J. van Hees, S. Naldini, Structural Damage in Masonry in Restoration of Buildings and Monuments, Restoration of Buildings and Monuments, Bauinstandsetzen und Baudenkmalpflege, Editore: Aedificatio Publishers, Anno edizione: 2010, ISSN: 1864-7251, Fascicolo: vol. 16, n. 2
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaFiorani, Donatella, Restauro architettonico e strumento informatico : guida agli elaborati grafici, Editore: Liguori, Anno edizione: 2004, ISBN: 8820735938
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaSchumann, I. and others, Damage atlas : classification and analyses of damage patterns found in brick masonry , Editore: European Commission, Anno edizione: 1998, ISBN: 3816747027
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaICOMOS - Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration patterns http://www.icomos.org/publications/monuments_and_sites/15/pdf/Monuments_and_Sites_15_ISCS_Glossary_Stone.pdf
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaL. BARONIO, G. BINDA, The durability of masonry in aggressive environments and techniques for conservation and protection, Editore: Caithness : Whittles, Anno edizione: 2006, ISBN: 1870325583

in: Durability of materials and structures in building and civil engineering, editors Yu, C. W. and Bull, John W.

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaLezioni di petrografia applicata 2008 http://www.icvbc.cnr.it/didattica/petrografia/catalogo_foto.htm

The stone catalogue helps in the resognising process of the materials used min the Lombardia Architectural Heritage

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaCamuffo Dario, Havermans John, Fassina Vasco, Basic environmental mechanisms affecting cultural heritage, Editore: Nardini, Anno edizione: 2010, ISBN: 9788840443348
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaeditors S. Musso, L. De Marco, Teaching Conservation/Restoration of Architectural Heritage , Anno edizione: 2008, ISBN: 2-930301-35-X

Proceedings of the Conference supported by EC in the framework of the Socrates Programme

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaJukka Jokilehto, Thought towards an International Approach to the Conservation of Cultural Property, D. Phil Thesis, Editore: The University of York, England, Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, Anno edizione: 1986 http://mestrado-reabilitacao.fa.utl.pt/disciplinas/jaguiar/jukkajokilehto1986historyofconservation.pdf

(PDF format 2005)

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativaJokilehto, Jukka, A History of Architectural Conservation, Editore: Butterwort/Heinemann, Anno edizione: 1999
Risorsa bibliografica facoltativade la Torre, Marta, editor, Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage: Research Report, Editore: Editore: The Getty Conservation Institute, Anno edizione: 2002 http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/pdf_publications/assessing.pdf
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaBedford Jon, Heather Papworth eds., Measured and Drawn - Techniques and practice for the metric survey of historic buildings - 2. ed.: , Editore: Swindon UK, English Heritage, Anno edizione: 2009, ISBN: 9781848020474 http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/publications/measured-and-drawn/measured-and-drawn.pdf

(available on the web in .pdf format)

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaJon Bedford and others, Metric Survey Specifications for Cultural Heritage, Editore: Swindon UK, English Heritage, Anno edizione: 2009, ISBN: 9781848020382 https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/publications/metric-survey-specification/metric-survey-specific-for-cultural-heritage.pdf

(available on the web in .pdf format)

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaM.Boriani, A.Cazzani, Cultural Heritage Preservation in Italy, Editore: Oemme, Anno edizione: 2014

in G.Casnadi (edited by), The Politecnico di Milano in Armenia, Oemme edizioni, Venezia, 2014, pp. 33-42

Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaJ.Earl, Building Conservation Philosophy, Editore: Donheat, Anno edizione: 2003
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaJ.M.Fitch, Historic Preservation, Curatorial Management of the Built World, Editore: The University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville and London,, Anno edizione: 1990
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaCultural Heritage and Landscape Italian Preservation Code, Il Nuovo Codice dei Beni Culturali e del Paesaggio, DL 42/2004 http://www.eui.eu/Projects/InternationalArtHeritageLaw/Italy.aspx
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaThe European Landscape Convention - 2000 http://www.darc.beniculturali.it/ita/paesaggio/convenzione.htm
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaLa Convenzione Europea del Paesaggio, Firenze, 2000 http://www.darc.beniculturali.it/ita/paesaggio/convenzione.htm
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaK. Kraus, Photogrammetry: Geometry from Images and Laser Scans, Editore: Walter de Gruyter
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaE.M. Mikhail, J. Bethel, J.C. McGlone, Introduction to Modern Photogrammetry, Editore: John Wiley & Sons
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaT. Luhmann, S. Robson, S. Kyle, I. Harley, Close Range Photogrammetry: Principles, Techniques and Applications, Editore: John Wiley & Sons
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoriaG. Vosselman, H-G- Maas editors, Airborne and terrestrial laser scanning, Editore: Whittles, Anno edizione: 2010

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