Service Factory for Extreme Change.
What the Final Studio offers.
The Final Studio aims at designing new services for urban contexts, thinking about the great challenge that the contemporary society proposes for citizens, businesses and institutions.
Students are required to think in terms of (self)entrepreneurships, namely to design new services that could be implemented, incubated, developed in the future to solve the problems of a contemporary city experienced by users.
Professors will help students in managing the design process and the economical aspects related to the idea development. Moreover, students will meet experts in different seminars that will help students in directing their design from ideas to practice.
Framework and theme.
Cities are key places where social, cultural, entrepreneurial change happens.
They can be considered as contemporary laboratories where services are ideated, organized and produced from citizens, institutions, and enterprises.
One of the levers to stimulate a positive change in this direction and in such a complex system is creativity. The ideas of creative cities, smart cities, sharable cities are growing as different ways to approach services in urban contexts.
In this framework, we recognized three main drivers for service innovation in urban contexts:
- sharing economy and social innovation issues related to those mechanisms of creating businesses and services starting from people collaboration;
- hyper technology/new manufacturing issues related to contemporary ways of producing, distributing, communicating products and services though the adoption of emerging technology;
- radical efficiency issues connected to the necessity of delivering high quality services with less resources available.
This scenario depicts future innovation areas based on extreme changes for users and organizations: what are the future ways of collaboration? How will users behaviours change in the next future? What are the new ways of living and producing in the next economy? How will new technologies affect the service sector?
These topics will have an important impact on cities and neighborhoods, affecting the inhabitants and visitors. In this context, Service Factory for Extreme Change wants to create a service lab where people can ‘craft’ and prototype their service ideas with the possibility of eventually experiment them on the market in the future.
The city, as a laboratory of ideas and innovation, is the starting point to envision and design new services concerning every aspect of life (from where we live to how we move around the city) as well as how we interact with the city at every level (integration, wellbeing, communication, community creation and so on).
From a Service Design point of view, the focus is on people, places, experiences, relationships/interactions that characterize a city and in such context need to be designed.
In this scenario designing services means considering the design intervention strictly related to real places and communities. The approach is “people-centred”: it considers communities of users (or better all the actors involved in the service) a central point since the very initial stages of the project, namely a particular attention to the services’ users and the service experience is given, considering the relationship between the different actors involved as a key element of the service.
Service Factory for Extreme Change will be a participative (and open) studio. This means that a core characteristic will be the possibility to imagine a prototyping phase of the service designed in and for the neighborhoods (and the city), by identifying a specific community of users in a particular context for development.
Objectives and areas of opportunity
Service Factory for Extreme Change mainly aims at developing new services ideas (eg: start-ups, new business, new social enterprises) connected to the given innovation levers. The challenge is to design an urban-based activity connected with the city needs and the people behaviors.
The design process will develop through different steps:
- Design research and design scenarios
- Design workshops and business strategy
- Finalizing the service ideas in terms of design and business.
Design research and scenarios
The activity will be held in the early stage of the final studio.
The main aim is to explore the design opportunities related to different field of activities.
Students will be required to analyse one innovation area and structure a research aimed at defining the important issues connected to the assigned theme using data and examples. The result will be an initial framework of concepts and cases (a collection of qualitative and quantitative data) to support the design studio for the following steps.
Design Workshops and Business model
3 Design Workshops will be developed during the final studio, they will be dedicated to develop the service idea starting from the scenario building to the idea generation. Lessons and reviews will be also dedicated to support the business idea development.
The design activities will be connected to business model generation lectures and practices to support students in developing the business elements of the ideas proposed.
Structure and organization
The studio will develop through three main kinds of activities: lectures, hands-on workshops and project reviews.
The studio is structured in three main parts. The first part concerns the design research, the second is related to the idea generation and the creative activities, and the third is focused on the service final development.
In particular, the main Studio activities will be focused on:
> DESIGN AND CASE RESEARCH > Which are themain characteristics that characterize innovation in cities? Which are the actors who play a significant role in promoting innovation in cities? Which are the significant structured (or informal) activities that represent a value for the neighborhoods?
During this part, students will be required to use some specific research tools aimed at visualizing and communicating the different outputs. The results will be showed as a little exhibition that will frame the vision of the course.
> BUILDING SCENARIOS > What are the interesting topics/communities to design new services ideas for cities and neighborhoods? The result of the WS is a series of scenarios well focused on specific areas and design topics
> DEFINING SERVICE IDEAS > What are the new service ideas that can be implemented to improve city lifestyle? The result of the WS is a service idea described through the organization of the service, and visualized through the interactions between the user and its specific experiences.
> REFINING SERVICE CONCEPTS > How the service is structured?
The result of the WS is the re-definition of the service design idea, that is the service and its specificities, the entire system made of users and offers, the business model of the service, the organization and interlink of the different parts of the service, the visualization of the entire experience underpinning the specific touch-points of the service.
> DEVELOPING AND DESIGN THE SERVICE BUSINESS MODEL > What are the different elements that support the service business model? This part is strictly connected to the previous ones, the students will structure the economical part of the service identifying the main elements of the business model, in terms of key resources, customer segments, value proposition, revenue stream and so on, to define and detail the service economical sustainability.
> FINALIZING/PROTOTYPING SERVICES > How does the service work and how can be visualized?
The result of this part is the final definition of the design solution, that will illustrate the service complete of all its specificities, the system made of users and offers, the organization and interlink of the different parts of the service, the visualization of the whole experience underpinning the specific touch-points of the service. All parts, when defined, will be developed in depth for the final exam.
The Seminars and the reviews concerning the business models will be connected also to the final development. This will support an integrated process to define the services qualities, the user experience and the related economical aspects.
At the end of each WS students will have to hand in a specific list of deliverables that will be presented and explained at the beginning of each WS.
The common elements to all the WS are:
- a synthetic presentation of the work done (ppt, pdf, video, and so on).
The final examination will require the students to hand in:
- 1 visual book of the project
- 1 synthetic presentation of the work done (ppt, pdf, video, and so on) + eventually prototypes of the service.
- 1 booklet containing the visualized synthesis of the service developed
More specific indications on each of these deliverables will be given during class.
Suggested books and articles
Bradwell, P. & Marry, S. (2008). Making the most of collaboration: An international survey of public service co-design. DEMOS and PriceWaterhouse Coopers Public Sector Research Centre 2008. London. Report.
Brown, T., 2009. Change by design: how design thinking transforms organizations and inspires innovation. New York: HarperCollins.
Burns C., Cottam H., Vanstone C., Winhall J. (2006). “Transformation Design”, RED paper 02, Design Council, London.
Chesbrough, H. W. (2011). Open Services Innovation: Rethinking Your Business to Grow and Compete in a New Era. USA: Wiley and Sons.
Cottam, H. & Leadbeater, C. (2002). Health: Co-creating Services. RED Paper01. Design Council, London Report.
IDEO (2009). Human Centered Design, Toolkit. Available at: http://www.ideo.com/work/featured/human-centered-design-toolkit [last accessed: 31 January 2010]
Jegou, F. & Manzini, E. (2008). Collaborative services. Social innovation and design for sustainability. Milano: Polidesign.
Jones, M. & Samalionis, F. (2008). “From Small Ideas to Radical Service Innovation”, Design Management Review, Vol. 19, N. 1.
Landry, C. (2000). The Creative City. A Toolkit for Urban Innovators, London: Earthscan.
Lockwood, T. (2010). Design thinking: Integrating innovation, customer experience, and brand value. New York: Allworth.
Manzini, E., (2015). Design when everybody designs, MIT Press
Meroni, A. (2007). Creative Communities. People inventing sustainable ways of living. Milano: Polidesign.
Moritz, S., 2005. Service Design – Practical Access to an Envolving Field. Cologne: Köln International School of Design.
Murray, R., Caulier, G. & Mulgan, G. (2010). The Open Book of Social Innovation. The Young Foundation and NESTA.
Papanek, V., 1985. Design for the real world: human ecology and social change. New York: Pantheon Books.
Sanders, E. (2009). “Co-creation through generative design thinking”. Keynote speech video at IASDR Conference 2009 – Available at: http://www.iasdr2009.com/m42.asp
Stickdorn, M. & Schneider, J. (2011). This is Service Design Thinking: Basics - Tools – Cases. Amsterdam: BIS Publishers
Thackara, J. (2006). In the bubble: Designing in a complex world. Massachusetts: MIT Press.
Thinkpublic (2008). “The story of co-design by thinkpublic”. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HWgJlwTDIRQ%5D
Villari, B. (2012). Design per il territorio. Un approccio community centred. Milano: FrancoAngeli
Villari, B. (2013). Design, comunità, territori. Un approccio community-centred per progettare relazioni, strategie e servizi. Milano: Libraccio Editore
Villari, B., (2015). Coltivazioni sociali urbane. Innovazione sociale di quartiere, Milano: Maggioli Editore