
Risorsa bibliografica obbligatoria 

Risorsa bibliografica facoltativa 

Anno Accademico

2015/2016

Scuola

Scuola di Ingegneria Industriale e dell'Informazione 
Insegnamento

097609  PLASMA PHYSICS I+II

Docente 
Passoni Matteo

Cfu 
10.00

Tipo insegnamento

Monodisciplinare

Corso di Studi 
Codice Piano di Studio preventivamente approvato 
Da (compreso) 
A (escluso) 
Insegnamento 
Ing Ind  Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270)  BV (478) NUCLEAR ENGINEERING  INGEGNERIA NUCLEARE  *  A  ZZZZ  097609  PLASMA PHYSICS I+II  097608  PLASMA PHYSICS I  097624  PLASMA PHYSICS II  Ing Ind  Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270)  MI (486) ENGINEERING PHYSICS  INGEGNERIA FISICA  *  A  ZZZZ  097609  PLASMA PHYSICS I+II  097608  PLASMA PHYSICS I  Ing Ind  Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270)  MI (487) MATHEMATICAL ENGINEERING  INGEGNERIA MATEMATICA  *  A  ZZZZ  097670  PLASMA PHYSICS  Ing Ind  Inf (Mag.)(ord. 270)  MI (491) MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND NANOTECHNOLOGY  INGEGNERIA DEI MATERIALI E DELLE NANOTECNOLOGIE  *  A  ZZZZ  097608  PLASMA PHYSICS I 
Programma dettagliato e risultati di apprendimento attesi 
PLASMA PHYSICS I (5 ECTS)
Aims
The aim of this course is to provide a fundamental knowledge about the plasma state, with special focus on strongly ionized, high temperature plasmas. First, the problem is framed in the wider context of the electrodynamics of continuous media. Subsequently, after introducing the main properties and physical quantities that characterize the plasma state, the different theoretical models used in its description are derived from first principles. These models are then used to investigate specific topics, such as the collective modes and the propagation and emission of electromagnetic radiation in a plasma. The course concludes with a short introduction to the main issues related to controlled thermonuclear fusion.
Programme
 Recalls of electromagnetism. Maxwell's equations. Lorentz force. Electrodynamic potentials. Gauge invariance. Lorenz and Coulomb gauges. Systems of Units in Electromagnetism: SI and gauss.
 Electrodynamics of continuous media. Poynting's theorem, conservation of energy in linear dispersive media. Antihermitian component of the dielectric tensor of a medium and its absorption properties of electromagnetic energy. Conservation of energy in the presence of spatial dispersion. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in uniform and dispersive media: linear theory.
 Fundamental plasma parameters. Shielding of the electric charge and the Debye length. Thermodynamic properties of a classical plasma. Plasma oscillations and plasma frequency. Electrical conductivity of a plasma. Conditions of "existence" of a plasma.
 Guiding center theory. Dynamics of charged particles in constant, uniform, external electric and magnetic fields. Motion in slowly varying fields: the guiding center approximation. Drift motions. Mirror effect.
 Methods for the description of a plasma. Microscopic description of a plasma: Klimontovich equation, kinetic theory, Vlasov equation. Macroscopic descriptions of a plasma: equations for the moments and multiple fluids model. Single fluid approach: Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Limits of validity.
 Waves in a plasma I. Macroscopic approach: waves in a cold plasma, waves in a hot plasma, waves in the presence of an external magnetic field. Kinetic approach: collisionless absorption of electrostatic waves, Landau damping. Physical interpretation of the resonant waveplasma interaction.
 Emission of electromagnetic radiation in a plasma I. Results of the general theory of the radiation emission by moving charged particles. EM emission in a plasma: Cyclotron and Bremsstrahlung radiation.
 Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Introduction. Nuclear fusion reactions, thermonuclear plasmas.
PLASMA PHYSICS II (5 ECTS)
Aims
The course aims to develop some important issues of the physics of matter in the plasma state and represents a logical continuation of the course Plasma physics I. In addition to a more complete understanding of the physical properties of a plasma, the topics that are covered are also preparatory to the study of some of the most interesting and important applications of hot plasmas produced in the laboratory. To this end, the covered aspects include an introduction to the physical properties of magnetically confined plasmas, the physics of intense laserplasma interaction and a presentation of controlled thermonuclear fusion, both magnetic and inertial. At the end of the course, visits at Research Centers (IFPCNR Milano, ENEA Frascati, LNFINFN Frascati) are foreseen.
Programme
 Waves in a Plasma II. General aspects of the kinetic study of collective modes in a plasma. Waves in the presence of an external magnetic field in the kinetic approach: Cyclotron resonances, their physical interpretation and main properties. Introduction to the study of collective modes in a nonlinear plasma: relativistic plasma models, wave propagation of arbitrary amplitude in the cold plasma approximation.
 Laserplasma interaction. Introduction. Interaction between electromagnetic waves and underdense/overdense plasmas. Ponderomotive force, excitation of waves in plasmas, wavebreaking. Parametric instabilities. Applications of the superintense laserplasma interaction.
 Physics of magnetically confined plasmas. Dynamics of charged particles in toroidal and “Tokamak” magnetic configurations: consequences on the system’s physical behavior. 1D MHD equilibrium and stability: thetapinch, Zpinch, screwpinch. 2D MHD equilibria and stability: balance of toroidal forces, GradShafranov equation, Solove'v equilibria, stability criteria. Fundamental properties of the plasma edge region in magnetically confined systems: limiters, divertor, scrapeoff layer.
 Emission of electromagnetic radiation in a plasma II. General theory of the radiation emission by charged particles in motion and emission of EM radiation in a plasma: Cyclotron and Bremsstrahlung emission.
 Collisions in a plasma. General properties of the collisional term in the kinetic description. Coulomb collisions. Characteristic collision times. Collisional transmission of energy between electrons and ions. Descriptions of the collision integral: BalescuLenard, Landau and FokkerPlanck equations.
 Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Introduction. Lawson criteria and ignition conditions. Approaches to fusion: magnetic (MCF) and inertial (ICF) confinement. General scheme of a fusion power plant. Energy balances. Fundamental physical properties of magnetically/intertially confined thermonuclear plasmas. Main scientific and technological issues of fusion systems. Current state of research in MCF and ICF.
Requested background
To attend the course a knowledge, at least at an elementary level, of classical mechanics, electromagnetism and calculus is required.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Among the many textbooks which cover general and specific subjects of interest for the course:
 R. Pozzoli, Fisica del plasma termonucleare e astrofisico, CLUED (1984)
 G. Pucella, S.E. Segre, Fisica dei plasmi, Zanichelli (2010)
 J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, John Wiley & Sons (1999)
 L. D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of continuous media, Elsevier (1984)
 L. D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz, Physical kinetics, Elsevier (1981)
 A. I. Akhiezer et al., Plasma Electrodynamics Vol 1: linear theory, Pergamon Press (1975)
 A. I. Akhiezer et al., Plasma Electrodynamics Vol 2: Nonlinear theory, Pergamon Press (1975)
 N.G. Van Kampen, B.U. Felderhof, Theoretical methods in plasma physics, North Holland (1967)
 J. Freidberg, Plasma physics and fusion energy, Cambridge University press (2007)
 D. Naujoks, Plasmamaterial interaction in controlled fusion, Springer (2006)

Note Sulla Modalità di valutazione 
The evaluation consists in an oral examination. It aims at verifying the knowledge of the course topics, with particular reference to the ability in interpreting the physical meaning of the adopted mathematical methods. The knowledge of the systems of units and the value of the fundamentals physical quantities in plasma physics is required as well.

Tipo Forma Didattica

Ore didattiche 
lezione

62.0

esercitazione

40.0

laboratorio informatico

0.0

laboratorio sperimentale

0.0

progetto

0.0

laboratorio di progetto

0.0

Informazioni in lingua inglese a supporto dell'internazionalizzazione 
Insegnamento erogato in lingua
Inglese

Disponibilità di materiale didattico/slides in lingua inglese

Disponibilità di libri di testo/bibliografia in lingua inglese

Possibilità di sostenere l'esame in lingua inglese

