MICRO AND NANOOPTICS 
Aim of the course is the study of the theoretical foundations and of the main applications of integrated optics.
Introduction to optical communication systems.
Historical evolution. Introductory concepts: analog and digital transmission, multiplexing techniques, modulation formats. Layout of an optical communication system: topology, design criteria, integrated optical devices. Analysis of the bit-error-rate as a function of the main noise system sources. Communication systems limited by attenuation and dispersion.
Integrated optical devices.
Couplers and power splitters in integrated optics.
Coupled mode theory. Transfer matrix of the directional coupler. Functional analysis of the directional coupler as a 3-dB coupler, as a frequency filter and as an optical switch. Other types of couplers and beam splitters: the bifurcation, the multimode interference coupler, the star coupler.
Optical filters in integrated optics.
FIR (Finite Impulse Response) and IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters. General spectral properties of filters. Mach-Zehnder interferometer: spectral response and engineering guidelines. The Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG): operation principle, transfer function, engineering guidelines. Functional analysis of the AWG as a de/multiplexer, as a router and as a reconfigurable add-drop filter. Ring resonant filter: transfer function and main features.
Electro-optic intensity modulators.
The electro-optic effect: basic principles. X-cut and Z-cut lithium niobate modulators. Lumped and travelling electrodes. Bandwidth limitations. Integrated optical intensity modulators: architectures (Mach-Zehnder interferometer, directional coupler, deltabeta-reversed directional coupler) and performance. Comparison with bulk modulators.
Recent advances in the field of optical communications.
DPSK modulation formats: signal to noise ratio and architecture of transmitters and receivers. Coherent detection and digital signal processing for multi-level transmission formats and dispersion compensation.
Concluding seminar on fabrication techniques, packaging issues and new technological perspectives.