Physics of Surfaces
The aim of the course is to illustrate the morphologic, electronic ad optical properties developed by surfaces and interfaces of crystalline solids. Surfaces and interfaces represent examples of low-dimensional systems, where the symmetry reduction may induce novel and exotic properties with respect to those that can be observed inside the bulk of a solid. The physical mechanisms acting inside the bulk or at the surface of a solid will be compared in order to highlight their role in defining how the electronic and optical properties of solid matter are influenced by symmetry reduction. During the course the students will be also introduced to a few experimental techniques that are currently employed in modern Surface Science.
Examples of simple metals, 3d metals and insulators. Nearly free electron model and tight binding approximation.
Density of states: examples in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions.
Surface electronic states: projected bands structure, Shockley states, Tamm states.
Beyond the single particle approximation: Density Functional Theory.
Selected examples: graphene, dichalcogenides, …
Kramers-Kronig relations. Direct and indirect transitions. Joint density of states in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions.
Excitons and plasmons. Surface plasmons and plasmonics.
Surface preparations and thin film growth.
Structural characterization of surfaces: LEED.
Electronic structure determination: photoemission (UPS, XPS, ARPES), Auger spectroscopy, microscopy
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ashcroft-Mermin “Solid State Physics”, Luth “Solid surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films”, (Hofmann “Solid state physics”, M. Fox “Optical properties of solids”)